<![CDATA[International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences]]> en-us 2020-02-18 16:16:28 2020-02-18 16:16:28 ZWWY RSS Generator <![CDATA[Psychological Distress and Physiological Markers: Differences Comparison in First Division Football Players]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Farah Layth Naji   Tengku Fadilah Tengku Kamalden   and Saidon Amri   

This study aimed to determine the level of stress as measured through different stress measurement methods (DASS questionnaire, SIgA, pulse rate and oxygen saturation). The highest scores for depression, anxiety, stress, pulse rate were before the competition (M=8.365, SD=2.733), (M=8.689, SD=3.962), (M=10.068, SD=3.094), (M=63.27, SD=5.008) respectively. While for salivary IgA and oxygen saturation, the highest score was at resting time (M=112.147, SD=14.431), (M=98.3, SD=1.893) respectively. Descriptive method was used for data collection. Participants were 74 football players of all the first division clubs in Karbala, Iraq, aged between 18-22 years old. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured at three different time points (resting time, before the training, before the competition), while salivary IgA, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation measurement were measured through five different time points (resting time, before the training, after the training, before the competition, after the competition). It can be concluded that the combination of psychological distress and physiological markers can provide accurate measurements of stress.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[Effect of Physical Exercise and Gender on Information Processing and Choice Reaction Time of University Students]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Said Lotfi   Imane Elmoutaraji   and Mohammed Talbi   

The study aimed to examine the impact of a team sport match on the cognitive coding-decoding system and the psychomotor reaction time on university students. Twenty-one healthy university learners (average age = 21.5 ± .3 years) were administered the WAIS-IV scales and Leed Test psychomotors before and after a single bout of exercise. The exercise treatments consisted of a 5-min warm-up, a 5-min cooldown, and handball game for 20 min. The means were compared by ANOVA at the .05 significance level. The results revealed that exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across Speed of information processing (p<.000), visual perception (p<.005) and choice reaction time (p <.040). Furthermore, under the effect of gender, the performances of males in total reaction time were significantly (p<.05) higher than females at rest and after exercise. But no significant difference was noted in the speed of treatment information and visual perception time. It is suggested that physical activity can be used as a means of stimulating cognitive skills and student development in university training programs in order to optimize certain cognitive functions and improve learning.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[The Psychological Parameters of Athletic Injuries in Female Collegiate Athletes]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Courtenay C. Stewart-Reiner   

Introduction/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in the psychological parameters of life stress and anxiety as risk factors to injury. Methods: Participants in this study are female athletes [n=51, (36 injured, 15 non-injured)] from four various sports teams (basketball, golf, soccer, and softball) at an NCAA Division I college. The participants completed four different questionnaires: an injury report, the Life Events Coping Scale for Collegiate Athletes (LESCA), the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT). Results: Results indicated that injured athletes experienced more life stress than non-injured athletes and this difference was statistically significant. Results also showed that in personality competitive anxiety and sport competitive anxiety, non-injured athletes have lower anxiety than injured athletes. Conclusion: This study sought to examine the differences in injured and non-injured athletes between psychological parameters that may lead to injury. The difference in life events between injured and non-injured athletes was statistically significant while the difference in personality competitive anxiety and sport competitive anxiety was not statistically significant.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[Influence of Goal Orientation on Players' Performance with Special Reference to Sri Lanka National Team Sports]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  4  

Perera HPN   Jusoh M   Azam SMF   and Sudasinghe SRSN   

The purpose of the present research was to study the relationship between goal orientation and performance in team sports players. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) was used for the assessment of goals. The observed variable of the study was perceived performance and was measured through a likert scale questionnaire, which had been adopted from literature. Subjective performances of the players were considered. Data was collected from Sri Lankan national team players who are engaged in team sports of football, basketball, Elle, volleyball, Hockey, Kabaddi, Netball, Rugby and Throw ball. The study population was 308 national team players and the universal sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS and structural equation modeling with AMOS. The study results reveal that there is a significant association between goal orientation and performance of the players while a significant relationship exists between task orientation and performance. A moderate level of association was derived from ego orientation which in turn leads to performance.

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Dec 2019
<![CDATA[Investigation of the Risk of Daily Officer Work Posture Based on Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (Rula) Method]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Sri Widiyawati   Rio Prasetyo Lukodono   Astuteryanti Tri Lustyana   and Izzaudin Afif Pradana   

Work activities in the office are generally static and take a long period of time. This activity is carried out with awkward postures that result in fatigue and injuries. The study is conducted in one of the business entities providing services construction and management of network infrastructure at the Division of Process Aligning Service Comply in January 2019. These activities are reflected in the conditions of work posture for bending, the use of maximum range and uncomfortable position of certain body parts, and will have an impact on decreasing productivity of workers. Therefore, an analysis was carried out to evaluate the posture of employees in order to find the potential problem of the work posture used. The RULA method can be used to evaluate musculoskeletal load in a job where a person has the risk of the upper-body activity. The sample used in this study was workers who work in a sitting position with their activities using a computer. Based on the analysis, it is known that worker activity gets a score that indicates that the workstation requires a change.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[Institutional Based Reasons for Students Non-participation in Physical Activity and Sport Programs in the Kenyan Public Universities]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Bailasha N. K   Rintaugu E. G   Kamau J   Mwangi F. M   Mucheke C. M   and Otieno M. D   

University environment offers numerous advantages and easy opportunities for improving students' participation in physical activity and sport. However, there are paucity of researches on the reasons for non-participation in the university physical activity and sport programs in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish the institutional based reasons for the students' non-participation in the universities' physical activity and sport programs. Cross-sectional survey design was used and data was collected through questionnaires from Sixty-three (33 males, and 30 females) students. Mean standard deviation and graphs respectively, were used to describe and present data. Findings showed that key reasons for non-participation in physical activity and sport programs in the university were inadequate sport facility 74.6%, overcrowded facility 73%, unorganized sport program 63.5%, lack of sport facility 58.7%, lack of sport variety 57.1%, inaccessible facility 49.2%, no coaches 47.6%, unfriendly time for sport 39.7%, unsafe sport equipment 38.1%, inappropriate behaviour of sport personnel 36.5% and 34.9% was due to unskilled sport personnel. Students' age, year and course of the study influenced non-participation of students in the universities' sport programs. Also, students' previous and current participation status confirmed students avoid universities' sport programs although they participate in the same elsewhere. Diversifying and professionalizing sport and aligning programs with academic schedules would attract students. TRA can be useful in sensitizing students on the benefits of sports. Similar studies with larger student population are necessary.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[Sports Activities for Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabia Universities: A Systematic Literature Review]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  8  Number  1  

Sameer Mohammed Sayyd   Zainal Abidin Bin Zainuddin   Diyana Zulaika Binti Abdul Ghan   and Zayed M Altowerqi   

Objectives: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has experienced tremendous economic growth in the past few years and this in turn has led to undesirable lifestyle behaviors coupled with an associated rise in non-communicable diseases. This has forced the KSA administration to encourage sports related activities for a healthy life style. In this article, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) is presented to discuss the current state of Physical Activity (PA) and sports activities in KSA and Other Countries in the World (OCW). The article also presents issues that hinder the success of physical and sports activities development in KSA to identify research gap. Methods: SLR search was conducted using ScienceDirect, Springer, Journal of health sciences and Google Scholar databases. The databases electronic search produced 553 articles at the initial stage. Some of these articles were eliminated since they did not conform to inclusion criteria. Finally a total of 58 articles satisfied the condition and was included for the study. Results: The literature highlighted that the studies investigating the male respondents is quite low having 3 in KSA and 0 in OCW, as against 7 in KSA and 0 in OCW for Females. In addition, the empirical analyses of the result based on this SLR concluded that the sports related studies in KSA are very low as compared to OCW. The study revealed that the main factors that hinder the success of physical and sports activities in KSA universities among males are lack of energy, motivation, self-confidence, and time, while among females, they are lack of social support and resources. Conclusion: It is not encouraged to participate in sports activity in Saudi Arabia. Despite the protests to promote sports activities there is very little action in this area as compared to OCW. Therefore, further research is needed to realize the potential in this area KSA to realise the vision 2030 and goal.

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Feb 2020
<![CDATA[Characterization of the Four-Stage Structure of the Process of Learning Motor Actions in Sports Games]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  4  

Naumchuk Volodymyr Ivanovych   

The purpose of this review is to summarize the views of researchers on the structure of the process of learning motor actions in sports games and justify the feasibility of its four-stage construction. The structure of motion learning is an open pedagogical system which reflects its most general patterns by revealing the typical interrelations among the elements of the stages of learning. Each preliminary stage of learning in motor actions provides a logical basis for the next, and its planned intermediate result corresponds to a certain functional formation, which gradually transforms into another, thus causing a transition to a higher level. The expediency of a four-stage structure of the process of learning motor actions in sports games is conditioned by a set factors, such as: establishing a link between the content of each of the stages of learning and the corresponding functional formation; ensuring the focus of learning on the transition from a method of reproducing motor actions to a fundamentally different – creative problem solving; creation of necessary conditions for the integration of motor actions in game and competitive activity; the use of the pedagogical potential of the game itself in the process of motor actions learning; ensuring a clear sequence and continuity of the pedagogical process; resolving the contradiction between the automation of motor actions and the role of consciousness in the cognitive process.

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Dec 2019
<![CDATA[Maximal Oxygen Levels as an Incremental Exercise to Optimise Individual Training Prescription with the Aim of Rectifying Weaknesses of Elite Algerian Soccer]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  4  

Mime Mokhtar   Zerf Mohammed   Hadjar Kherfane Mohamed   and Beboucha Wahib   

Purpose: This study aims to provide the Algerian soccer trainers with a systematic method to control and interpret the Algerian soccer's progress. Recommend by soccer studies based on new high-tech to monitor intensity aimed at a competitive superiority of soccer players. Performed based on direct relationship VO2max, intensity and distance covered in elites match. Methods: to esteem the weaknesses of elite Algerian soccer. This controlled study focused on a yo-yo (IR1) test as a reliable, valid predictor of high-intensity aerobic capacity and VO2max athletes levels, which is able to discriminate the differences between player's post-games and player's ability levels. Investigated in this study as a protocol to classify 59 male soccer players under 18 years, labelled on their VO2max levels and their relationships with body fat index studies. Results: All statistical procedure results advance the players with high VO2max levels up than 59 ml/kg/min, allows this category of players to record a difference of 8.98% VO2max levels, 1160.86 m of distance covered, -1,27% of BFP and -4,55 ml/ kg/min of BMI higher compared to the other fewer categories records. Conclusions: Our results approve the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test as a valid and reliable test to monitor improvements or decrements of soccer physiological and anthropometrical training concept game demands. It can be concluded in this study as simple and valid data to predict the excess of body fat index on the request aerobic fitness claims for demanding soccer top player profile.

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Dec 2019
<![CDATA[Passionate about the Sport, Dedicated to the Club? A Systematic Review Study to the Predictors, Dimensions and Outcomes of Membership Involvement in Recreational Sports and Leisure]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  4  

Nanny Kuijsters-Timmers   John Goedee   and Roger Leenders   

Aspects of involvement in sports and active leisure in an organized context have been extensively investigated, but none of these studies provides a comprehensive picture of the membership involvement of members in voluntary clubs (MI). Our research aims to obtain an overview of existing knowledge on MI by conducting a systematic review study of academic articles. The results show that, over the years, insights into MI have increased, inducing a well-elaborated concept. MI appears to be shaped by three main dimensions (i.e., participation, personal relevance, social world), four groups of predictors (i.e., personal characteristics, psychological, organizational, and social aspects) and three levels of outcomes, for individuals (i.e. health, skills, diversion, social connectedness), organizations (i.e., support and loyalty) and society (i.e., healthy life style, social capital, learning communities). Moreover, we show a circular effect of the outcome-aspects that also predict MI. Based on these results, we develop a framework of membership involvement, propose future research directions, and discuss scientific and practical implications.

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Dec 2019
<![CDATA[Does the Coach Leadership Behavior Mediates the Influence of Factors Affecting Coach Leadership Behavioral Styles on Team Success]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  3  

H. P. N. Perera   

The intension of this study is to conclude whether coach leadership behavior serves as a mediator amongst factors affecting said leader behavior and team success in sports. The sample for this was obtained from one hundred and sixty (n=160) athletes who participated in inter university games with special reference to Western Province Sri Lankan. Only team sports are considered and players from individual events are not considered under the current study. Coach leadership behavior was assessed through Revised Leadership Scale for Sports questionnaire (RLSS) and adopted questionnaires were utilized to measure the factors affecting it and the team success. General Linear model and Multiple Linear Regression were the methods used to analyze data. Validity and reliability of the questionnaires were measured through Correlation matrixes and Cronbach's alpha respectively. The results from the study confirm that coach leadership behavior acts as a mediator of the relationship between and factors affecting coach leadership style and team success signifying that factors affecting coach leader behavior may enhance coach behavior in the task of successful performance. Mediating effect was first tested through calculating path coefficients and further conducted the Sobel's test to validate the previous results.

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Sep 2019
<![CDATA[Triathletes' Motivational Dimensions for Participation in Ironman, and Comparison of these Factors with Their Life Satisfaction and Achievement Perceptions]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  3  

Arif ?etin   

This study aims to examine runners' motivation factors to participate in the Ironman Events and the comparison of these factors with their life satisfaction and success perceptions. The sample of the study were 81,8 % male (n: 112) and 18.2 % female (n: 25) participants who are randomly selected from Ironman Turkey Event in 2018. In the research, "Life Satisfaction Scale"; "Achievement Perception Scale", and "The Motivational Factor Scale for Participating Ultra Marathon" are used as data collection tool in the research. The relations between motivation, life satisfaction and achievement perception are tested with factor analysis, correlation analysis and SEM Partial Least Squares. The results show that motivation has a positive and high relationship with life satisfaction and achievement perception. As a result of the path analysis, there is a significant relationship between motivation dimensions including meaning in life, personal achievement goals and recognition sub-dimensions have a positive and significant effect on life satisfaction. Moreover, health perception has a positive and significant effect on achievement perception. In conclusion, most of the participants were male, the majority of the participants were aged 31 and older and had high income group, university education, working in the private sector, living in the city. It was concluded that the individuals who participated in the Ironman event were individuals who completed their education and worked in the private sector in the business world, who had high income groups and mostly lived in cities. It can be reported that triathletes' high motivational perceptions result in life satisfaction and achievement perception. It can be pointed out that triathletes' high motivational perceptions result in life satisfaction and achievement perception.

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Sep 2019
<![CDATA[Recurrent Hamstring Injuries in Elite Athletes - A Paradigm Shift to Mechanical Dysfunction of the Sacroiliac Joint as One Causation]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  2  

Jennifer Saunders   Barbara Hungerford   Trish Wisbey-Roth   Mel Cusi   and Hans Van der Wall   

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a significant and troubling issue in the elite athletic community. Reinjury may occur in up to 34% of patients in the kicking and running sports. We hypothesised that a proportion of these patients may have mechanical dysfunction of the sacroiliac joint as a causative mechanism. We recruited 23 elite athletes with recurrent hamstring injuries and lateralising lower back pain into the study after careful screening. Diagnosis was confirmed by scintigraphic SPECT/ CT imaging. Patients who failed directed physiotherapy were offered injection of the sacroiliac joint with platelet rich plasma (PRP). All 23 athletes (Av age 35 years, 19 M, 4F) had MRI evidence of hamstring tears (Av 4.2 tears) and met criteria for a diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction with mean clinical scores of 6.8 (Range: 7-9). Four patients returned to sport after physiotherapy and 19 underwent peri-articular PRP injection under ultrasound guidance. The baseline VAS was 80 (mean) and after treatment 9, indicating a significant response to treatment (p=0.002). All patients with SIJ dysfunction and recurrent hamstring tears responded to treatment. A plausible explanation for the relationship is the alteration in muscle sequencing around the pelvis following SIJ dysfunction.

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Jun 2019
<![CDATA[Effect of Service Quality and Rates on Satisfaction and Loyalty of Customer Behavior at Fitness]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  2  

Japhet Ndayisenga   and Tomoliyus   

Purpose: Regular quality of service and tariffs are generally recommended to be important factors for maintaining customers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of service quality on service satisfaction and fitness customer behavior, to determine the effect of tariff on fitness customer behavior loyalty, to determine the effect of satisfaction on customer behavior loyalty at fitness. Design/ methodology/ approach: Type This study was a descriptive research with mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative). The subjects of this research were 85 Customers from two groups: UNY Family and outside the UNY taken by random sampling. Data analysis techniques using correlation and linear regression among indicators-variables, and between variables themselves with Software SPSS.21 and PLS-SEM. Findings: The results showed that there was a significant effect of service quality on satisfaction, the effect of service quality on behavior loyalty was largely indirect. The ticket prices have a negative effect on satisfaction and behavioral loyalty. Research limitations/ implications: Although this study lacks generalizability, thus, service quality and tariffs are strong management instruments to help sports management. Practical implications–Thus, service quality and tariffs are strong management instruments to help sports management to decide the allocation of resources to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Originality/ value: This study is the first to apply to explain career to the current situation in that fitness.

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Jun 2019
<![CDATA[Disparities in Motor Competence between Roma and Non-Roma Children in Croatia and Relations of Motor Competence, School Success and Social Economic Status]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  2  

Ivan Serbetar   Jan Morten Loftesnes   and Iva Prprovic   

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences in the development of motor skills between native and Roma children in Northern Croatia, but also to establish relations of motor skills, school success and socioeconomic status. The sample of 114 children (57 Roma) of both gender (55 boys) were assessed by MABC-2. Social economic status was represented by the mother highest level of education, and grade point average represented academic success. Regarding motor performance 9 children fall in the categories of "motor impairment" or "risk for impairment", 7 of them were Roma minority. MANOVA (gender) x (ethnicity) was applied on manual dexterity, aiming and catching and balance and total standard score and both effects were significant (p=.000). Further univariate ANOVA's showed that the girls were better in manual dexterity (p=.000) and the boys in aiming and catching (p=.000). Non-Roma children performed better in manual dexterity (p=.000), balance (p=.000); and total test score (p=.000). Manual dexterity and ethnicity significantly (p=.000) predicted school success. Motor competence in Roma children was less developed than in native children. Poverty, parental-social but also environmental factors, significantly influence children's motor development.

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Jun 2019
<![CDATA[Leg-drive Does Not Affect Upper Extremity Muscle Activation during a Bench Press Exercise]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  1  

Jacob K. Gardner   Justin T. Chia   and Kelsey L. Miller   

The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activity of upper extremity muscles differed depending on the involvement of the legs during a bench press. The study included 15 male and 12 female recreationally trained, college age participants. There were 2 testing sessions. Session 1: Participants performed a 1-repetition maximum in a standard bench press followed by a leg-drive familiarization. For the familiarization, participants were instructed in the leg-drive technique (buttocks remained on the bench) and given ample time to practice until comfortable and which satisfied the researchers. Leg-drive pressing force was verified by measuring anterior-posterior and vertical ground reaction forces measured by a force plate. Session 2: Outfitted with surface electromyography (EMG), participants performed 3 repetitions in the bench press with 75% of the standard bench press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) under three conditions: 1) standard 2) leg-drive, 3) legs-in-the-air. The normalized average of the peaks of the three reps for each muscle were analyzed using a 2 x 3 (gender x condition) ANOVA. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences across groups or conditions (pectoralis major p = 0.405, anterior deltoid p = 0.297, triceps brachii p = 0.092). When comparing a standard bench press to leg-drive, our results indicate that similar amounts of muscle activation are required for the task regardless of the leg involvement. This work indicates that using a leg-drive technique that does not allow the buttocks to rise from the bench, does not result in a change in upper extremity muscle activity compared to a standard bench press. Due to lack of differences across conditions, athletes and strength coaches should base their decision on the use of leg-drive on their personal preference.

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Mar 2019
<![CDATA[Exercise Acutely Improves Dynamic Balance in Individuals with Unilateral Knee Osteoarthritis]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  1  

Emma C. Goddard   and James P. Dickey   

Exercise is often used to manage knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, OA leads to balance impairments which may lead to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on dynamic balance of individuals with unilateral knee OA. On one occasion, twenty participants with unilateral knee OA completed the star excursion balance test (SEBT) in all eight directions (anterior, anteromedial, medial, posteromedial, posterior, posterolateral, lateral, and anterolateral) on both affected and unaffected limbs, before and after a supervised exercise program. The exercise program consisted of 30 minutes of stretching and strengthening of the knee flexors and extensors. The SEBT was quantified as the composite score from all 8 directions. Participants also completed a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain before and after exercise. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant interaction nor difference between affected and unaffected sides for SEBT. There was significant improvement in SEBT composite score after exercise (7% and 5% post exercise for the affected and unaffected limbs respectively). VAS was not significantly different before and after exercise. These results suggest that a single bout of exercise improves acute dynamic balance performance in both affected and unaffected limbs in individuals with unilateral knee OA.

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Mar 2019
<![CDATA[Delay in Hand Grasp Release in Individuals with Post-stroke Hemiparesis]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  7  Number  1  

Ustinova K. I.   and Langenderfer J. E.   

This study investigated the initiation and release of hand grasp in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. The study included 10 individuals with mild hemiparesis and 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Participants were instructed to grasp and release the bottle-like handle of a manipulandum with their affected hand when prompted by auditory cues. Data points related to the initiation and release of the grasp, the maximal grip force, and the time of maximal force were analyzed with the wrist at each of five angles: flexion at 30° and 60°, neutral at 0°, and extension at 30° and 60°. The post-stroke group required more time than the control group to release the grasp. No significant differences were observed between groups for other data points. The results may suggest that the delayed grasp release remains a residual deficit even in patients with well-recovered hand function after stroke.

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Mar 2019
<![CDATA[The Relationship between Cell Phone Use, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in United States Adults above College-age]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  4  

Curtis Fennell   Ellen L. Glickman   Andrew Lepp   J. Derek Kingsley   and Jacob E. Barkley   

Purpose: There is evidence of a positive relationship between cellular telephone use and sedentary behavior but not physical activity in college-aged individuals (18-29 years). These relationships have not been tested in individuals older than college age (≥ 30 years old). Testing these relationships in older individuals is warranted as cell phone use is inversely associated with age. Methods: A sample of adults aged 30-63 years (N = 69, 50.5 ± 8.2 years old) wore a physical activity monitor (accelerometer) for seven days and completed validated surveys assessing daily cell phone use, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results: Cell phone use ( = 125.2 ± 146.8 minutes per day) was inversely associated with age (r = - 0.3, p = 0.005). Cell use was not associated with objectively- or subjectively-measured physical activity or sedentary behavior (r ≤ 0.1, p ≥ 0.3). Tertile splits were performed to establish groups of low, moderate, and high cell phone users. There were no significant (F ≤ 2.0, p ≥ 0.12 for all) differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior between groups. Conclusion: Unlike what has been reported in college-aged individuals, cell use was not associated with sedentary behavior in adults older than college age.

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Dec 2018
<![CDATA[The Effects of Plyometric Warm-up on Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Time to 10m in the Backstroke Swimming Start]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  3  

Gordon E. Barkwell   and James P. Dickey   

The backstroke swim start is an explosive, discrete skill. Swimmers often perform plyometric warm-up protocols, such as repeated jumps, prior to their race. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of repeated drop jumps performed immediately prior to a backstroke start. Nine elite backstroke swimmers performed three starts after a standard swimming warm-up, and three after an additional plyometric warm-up (three drop jumps from a height of 0.4 m) prior to each start. Timing and peak activation of gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis activity were measured using wireless surface electromyography. Hip and knee angles, wall contact time, head entry distance and time to 10 m were recorded using digital video cameras positioned at the side of the pool. On average, starts performed after the plyometric warm-up had a 0.10.09 s longer time to 10 m, peak gluteus maximus activity occurred 0.090.13 s later and peak vastus lateralis activity occurred 0.150.16 s earlier. Head entry distance was inversely proportional to time to 10 m (r = -0.80) across both conditions and should be considered as a training target. Performing plyometric warm-ups immediately prior to races may have a negative impact on backstroke start time to 10 m.

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Sep 2018
<![CDATA[Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Reactivity of Overweight Males]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  3  

David Chandrakumar   Daria Dyck   Stephen H Boutcher   and Yati N Boutcher   

Overweight compared to normal weight individuals typically possess reduced limb blood flow at rest and during mental challenge. The effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular reactivity of young overweight males, however, is undetermined. Thus, the purpose was to examine the cardiovascular reactivity response of overweight males to mental challenge before and after acute aerobic exercise. Fifteen normal weight (NW) males with body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and 15 overweight males (OW) with BMI > 25 kg/m2 aged 18-30 years acted as participants. All males underwent a 5-min Stroop task before and after one single 30-min bout of cycle exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Heart rate, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and forearm blood flow (FBF) were assessed during Stroop task before and after acute exercise. Arterial stiffness of the OW was significantly higher than NW during Stroop before (p =0.01) and after exercise (p = 0.001). After exercise, the OW had significantly smaller increase in FBF throughout Stroop (p = 0.04) compared to NW. The smaller increase in FBF throughout the Stroop in the OW was also accompanied by higher Stroop errors compared to that of NW (p = 0.01). Stroop errors were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, and body fat percentage, whereas post-exercise FBF was positively correlated with VO2max (p < 0.05). Being overweight was associated with a blunted FBF reactivity response and a greater number of errors during the Stroop task.

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Sep 2018
<![CDATA[Organization Design in Football Management Process]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  2  

Serdar Samur   

Nowadays, to create efficiency, businesses need to build expert departments (systematic structure) based on functional business section, accelerate the flow of information in itself and enable decisions to be taken more quickly, thus saving time and resources and taking measures against risks by constantly monitoring hierarchical structures. In the Sports Clubs, it is important to transfer the financial power, which is the result of sportive achievement, to the whole activity areas in the club in a balanced manner and to substructure investments to develop and grow and create economic magnitude and transform this magnitude to contribute to sportive achievement again. The purpose of this study is to split the football management into main processes and manage easily. In a system approach to manage football management areas with different variables in accordance with organizational goals in a harmony, sports clubs should separate ‘8' main process like Team Intelligence, Team Management, Youth Development, Footballer Transfer, Logistics Support, Public Relations and Corporate Communication, Economy-Finance, Sports Law. By means of these processes, Clubs can implement performance management and development, apply organizational learning and knowledge management and target continuous improvement and development.

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Apr 2018
<![CDATA[Impact of Stability Ball Sitting during Semi-recumbent Exercise]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  2  

Charles R.C. Marks   Steve Grapsas   and Deborah Malushi   

Purpose: This study determined if sitting on a stability ball (B), when compared to sitting on a chair (C), affects cardiorespiratory and muscular recruitment during semi-recumbent exercise. Methods: Participants sat on B or C behind a cycle ergometer using the bike seat for hand griping. Open-circuit spirometry and HR were monitored continuously during graded exercise. Initial two stages of exercise also had hip movements and the right arm, trunk, and leg EMGs recorded. Eighteen apparently healthy adults exercised twice, one trial on B and the other trial on C (order randomized). ANOVA for repeated measures (α < 0.05) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Only at peak was VO2 significantly higher (P = 0.001) for B compared to C. There was no significant (P = 0.291) difference between B and C for HR. Stage 2 hip movements were significantly (P < 0.001) higher while some leg EMGs were significantly (P < 0.019) lower on B compared to C. In addition, flexor digitorum EMG was significantly (P < 0.036) higher on B compared to C. Conclusion: The stability ball increases hip motion and may alter muscular recruitment pattern during semi-recumbent exercise with little impact on cardiorespiratory parameters.

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Apr 2018
<![CDATA[Limits of Stability, Tandem Walk, and Adaptation Test in Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case-control Comparison with Knee OA and Healthy Knee Controls]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  2  

Hyoungjin Park   and Taewoon Jung   

The purpose of this study was to compare adults with knee OA and "healthy knee" controls on balance ability by matching gender, age, mass, height, and BMI. Twenty-eight adults, 14 with medically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis and 14 with "healthy knee" status, were evaluated on dynamic balance as measured by the NeuroCom Balance Master? Limits of stability, tandem walk, and adaptation test protocols. Outcomes measured reaction time, movement velocity, maximum excursion, directional control for the limits of stability and speed, step width, endpoint sway velocity for the tandem walk test, and sway energy score for the adaptation test. The results showed that the "healthy knee" control subjects exhibited statistically significantly better results on all measures tested, however, this study did suggest balance deficits in individuals with knee OA may be better assessed for fall risk if placed in the situation where body weight is put forward, as these movements better mimic their activities of daily living.

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Apr 2018
<![CDATA[Comparing of Technical Skills of Young Football Players According to Preferred Foot]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  1  

Sinan Bozkurt   and Veysel Kucuk   

The purpose of this study is to compare technical skills of youth soccer players according to foot preference. A total of 61 amateur football players (Under 15) participated in the study from different clubs of Istanbul. The descriptive statistics and the relationship between the technical skills were examined by using Spearman test and Mann Whitney U test was used for paired comparison of the groups. The level of significance taken into account was (p<0.05). In conclusion, although there were not statistically significant difference between the left-and right footed players in technical skill tests (p?0.05), and a negative significant relationship was found between dribbling and juggling and long passing skill tests (p?0.05) in right-footed players. The present study may contribute to the literature on the specific skills related performance profile of youth football players.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[The Effects of Textured Insoles on Balance in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  1  

Hyoungjin Park   

As evidence of the effectiveness of added plantar-surface texture to improve balance has been successful for various populations, it is important to study if textured insoles may increase balance for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who have compromised the somatosensory function of the affected joint and correspondingly an increased risk of falls. Thus, this study investigated the degree of benefit through the use of textured insoles for improving balance and compared the balance of individuals with knee OA to matched-healthy peers. Fifteen with knee OA and fifteen healthy, aged, gender and BMI matched controls completed this study and were evaluated on balance as measured by a computerized dynamic posturography. There were significant improvements in balance when wearing the textured insoles in both groups, and healthy knee controls showed significantly better balance performances than individuals with knee OA. The benefits of this study for the individuals with knee OA are that this may lead to the development of an evidence-based footwear intervention which is noninvasive, simple to use, inexpensive, allows the user for self-management, and has the capacity to reduce the risk of falls, consequentially improving the quality of life.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Influence of Sustained Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Body Composition and Physical Performance in College-aged Males Seeking Military Commission]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  6  Number  1  

Daniel Jaffe   Jennifer Hewit   Jason Cholewa   Alexander Bedard   Tracey Matthews   Brian Thompson   and Samuel Headley   

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic ingestion of a proprietary beta-alanine supplement on body composition, indices of strength and power performance, and markers of cardiovascular endurance in physically active, college-aged males commissioning within the armed services. Subjects (n = 30) participated in four separate testing sessions, both pre and post assessment consuming either 6.0 g/day beta-alanine or Placebo supplementation for 6 weeks. Parameters evaluated included body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), vertical jump (VJ), 1 repetition maximum back squat (SQ) and bench press (BP), and a repetition maximum bench press (RMBP) at 75% of the attained maximum, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), lactate threshold (LT), and peak lactate concentration. For all variables, no significant interactions existed across condition and time (p > .05). In addition, for all variables, no significant differences existed between conditions (p > .05). Beta-alanine did not show any benefit for improving body composition or physical performance parameters in this group of individuals.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Impact of Wheel Size on Energy Expenditure during Mountain Bike Trail Riding]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  4  

Julie E. Taylor   Camille Thomas   and Jacob W. Manning   

This study examined the energy expenditure during mountain bike trail rides on a 26-inch wheel (26er) compared to a 29-inch wheel (29er). Thirteen experienced bikers (four women, nine men, age=33.0±10.1 yrs), completed similar 6.7km trail rides on a 26er and 29er. GPS was used to measure distance and speed during each ride. Energy expenditure was determined by measuring oxygen consumption. Compared to the 26er, the 29er rides took less total time (24.2±3.2 vs. 25.5±3.5 minutes, p=0.015), hence faster speeds (4.7±0.6 vs. 4.4±0.6 m?s-1, p=0.022), lower average heart rates (155.0±19.2 vs. 162.2±16.8 bpm, p=0.047), and lower total calories (263.3±34.3 vs. 290.7± 36.9 kcals, p=0.001). Work rates represented by the rate of oxygen consumption (ml O2?min-1, p=0.65) were not different. At similar work rates, riders apparently gained a mechanical advantage on the 29ers allowing for 5% lower riding times and heart-rates, 6.8% faster speeds, and a 9.4% reduction in the total caloric expenditure for a standardized trail ride.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Elite Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Coaches' Behavior during the 23rd World Universiade Games in Kazan, Russia]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  4  

John Elvis Hagan Jnr   Edward Wilson Ansah   Dietmar Pollmann   and Thomas Schack   

Despite the fact that behavior of coaches is critical towards optimal development and performance of athletes, there still remains a dearth of empirical evidence involving self-perceptions of competitive athletes at elite level. The purpose of the present study was to examine athletes' perceptions related patterns and gender differences specific to coaching behaviors during competition. Consequently, the Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 201 conveniently sampled elite student-athletes during the 23rd World Universiade Games at Kazan, Russia. Results show that a considerable number of sampled athletes perceived their coaches not to have provided the needed social support and positive feedback during competition. However, majority of these athletes felt they were involved democratically across the competition period. Additionally, while male athletes perceived their coaches to have given appreciable training and instruction, were more democratic, socially supportive, and provided positive feedback, female athletes perceived their coaches to be autocratic. A greater need for social support and positive feedback are required from coaches to help athletes deal with the stressors of elite competition. Similarly, the gender differences in the athletes' perceptions suggest a more idiosyncratic approach and flexibility toward coaching at high performance level if desired outcomes are to be accomplished.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Research on Continued Use of Sport-related Social Application: Taking WeRun as an Example]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  4  

Ke Zhang   and Yiqian Melannie Zhan   

Research on healthcare gadget or application is not new to many of us, yet WeRun's special features have been a reason, and it is completely free of charge. While we take into consideration that WeRun is the most popular application in the world, this study makes a through exploration of how this application could attract loyal members and recruit new members every day. Based on the Theory of Expectation Confirmation, the research combing the variables of emotional pleasure and subjective norm into the expectation-confirmation model of IS continuance (ECM-ISC) to measure the factors that affect the continued use of WeRun by users. A 325 online questionnaire survey had been conducted to this research. The results show that emotional pleasure was positively and significantly associated with users' satisfaction of WeRun and internal influence was positively and significantly associated with users' continuance intention. However, emotional pleasure is not significantly associated with users' continuance intention and external influence has negative influence on user's continuance intention.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Relationships between the Functional Movement Screen Score and Y-Balance Test Reach Distances]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  3  

Leila K. Kelleher   Ryan J. Frayne   Tyson A.C. Beach   Jordin M. Higgs   Andrew M. Johnson   and James P. Dickey   

Background: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is used to evaluate key movement patterns, functional symmetry, and identify individuals that are at elevated risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess whether dynamic postural control is a significant component of the composite FMS score by comparing it with Y-Balance Test (YBT) reach distances. Methods: Seventy-eight participants (including 40 males) performed the standardized FMS protocol followed by the YBT. The YBT reach distances were normalized to leg length and averaged between sides and trials. The individual reach directions were evaluated, and were also summed to form an aggregate YBT distance (TotalY). Results: We observed weak correlations between the composite FMS score and normalized posterolateral reach, normalized posteromedial reach, and the TotalY (r=0.36, 0.37, and 0.36, respectively; all p< 0.05). There was no correlation between the composite FMS score and normalized anterior reach (r=0.22; p=0.053). Together these findings demonstrate partial correspondence between the two tests. Conclusion: This indicates that dynamic postural control is a small component of the aggregate FMS score.

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Sep 2017
<![CDATA[Losing the Heritage - Falling out of Love with Cricket: Why Has This Happened to the British Afro-Caribbean Community?]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  3  

Russell Holden   

Since the late 1990s, English and Welsh cricket has undergone substantial organisational and financial change, spurred on by the increase in one-day cricket, particularly the shortened Twenty 20 format, which is designed in part to introduce the game to a wider audience. In terms of playing personnel, one of the most dramatic developments has been the decline in numbers originating from the Afro-Caribbean community. One of the chief consequences of this has been the virtual lack of black cricketers representing England at a range of age levels. Chris Jordan's selection for the 2014 Test series against Sri Lanka doubled the number of Afro-Caribbean cricketers appearing for England in Test cricket this century. Whereas formerly, cricket was central to the lives of many in the Afro-Caribbean community, enthusiasm for the history and love of the game has withered. My article explores why it is that the Afro-Caribbean community no longer reveres cricket as it used to, and poses the question why, as a parent, one would make an active choice to dissuade or not expose one's children to cricket, a pastime that offers tremendous opportunity for both physical and social expression. Furthermore, in terms of evolving contemporary black identity and evidence of passive discrimination, this article considers whether cricket is being marginalised because it is deemed unappealing, insufficiently financially rewarding and just not sexy enough, or whether the lack of space in urban settings, class barriers and the cost of playing the game is simply too expensive for those outside the middle class, or those not fortunate enough to obtain an academic bursary or possess well established cricketing connections.

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Sep 2017
<![CDATA[Validation of the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 for the Mexican Sport Context]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  2  

Antonio Pineda-Espejel   Emilio Arrayales   Raquel Morquecho-Sanchez   and Marina Trejo   

The aim of this study was to validate the factorial structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (Sport-MPS-2) for the Mexican population, and provide evidence of reliability. This scale is composed of 42 items that measure six factors of perfectionism: concern over mistakes, organization, perception parental pressure, perception coach pressure, doubts about actions, and personal standards. Such factors were suggested by the multidimensional perfectionism approach. The study involved 420 athletes of both genders with an average age of 21.63 years old (SD = 3.83) who answered the Mexican Spanish Version of the Sport-MPS-2. After eliminating six items, the results supported the six-factor model; and in five factors, the internal consistency exceeded or was under the limit of the usage criteria. In conclusion, the Mexican Spanish version of the Sport-MPS-2 offers factorial structure and constructs validity, excluding six items. Thus, it can be used for assessing five dimensions of perfectionism in athletes, even though further research shall be conducted to improve this instrument.

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Jul 2017
<![CDATA[Differences of Physique and Physical Fitness among Male South Korean Elite National Track and Field Athletes]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  2  

Sung, Bong-ju   and Ko, Byoung-goo   

The aim of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of physique and physical fitness differences among Track and Field groups. The male athletes participating in this study consisted only of South Korean national track and field athletes. The Korean national athletes were divided into four groups (long-distance runner, sprinter, jumper, thrower). The long-distance runner group (n=7) consisted of three male marathoners and four male race walkers. The sprinter group (n=7) consisted of five male 100m athletes and two male hurdlers. The jumper group (n= 7) consisted of 2 male high jumpers, 2 male long jumpers, and 3 male pole vault athletes. The thrower group (n=8) consisted of 2 male shot put athletes, two male javelin throwers, 2 male discus throwers and 2 male hammer throwers. This study was designed to investigate the effects of physique (height, weight), muscular strength (grip strength), muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), agility (side step), power (vertical jump), cardiopulmonary endurance (maximal oxygen uptake, Anaerobic Threshold %VO2max, rest heart rate), and flexibility (sit and reach). A one-way ANOVA was performed for the mean difference test among track and field athlete groups. A post hoc test method was conducted through the Scheffe Test. The results are as follows. The thrower athlete group showed significantly better results in weight, muscular strength (grip power) than the sprinter athlete group, long-distance runner group and the jumper athlete group. The long-distance runner group showed significantly better result in VO2max and AT (Anaerobic Threshold) than the sprinter group, thrower group and the jumper group. The sprinter group showed significantly better results in power (vertical jump) than the other three groups. There was no significant difference among the groups in the results for muscular endurance (push-up, sit-up), flexibility (sit and reach) and agility (side steps). In conclusion, the South Korean national long-distance runner group (VO2max: 72.6ml/kg/min, ATVO2max: 54ml/kg/min) was superior to the other three groups in cardiovascular endurance. The sprinter's group (vertical jump: 63.1cm) was superior to the other three groups in power. The thrower group (weight: 97kg, grip strength: 81kg) was superior to the other three groups in muscular strength and was heavier than the other groups. Korean national track & field athletes showed the characteristics of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and power in a detailed analysis of items. No differences were found in muscular endurance, flexibility, and agility. Differences in physique and physical fitness among detail event groups of Korean national athletes were in accordance with previous studies. In future studies, the sample size should be increased to improve the reliability and validity of the study results.

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Jul 2017
<![CDATA[The PerPot Simulated Anaerobic Threshold - A Comparison to Typical Lactate-based Thresholds]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  1  

Stefan Endler   Sabine Hoffmann   Bj?rn Sterzing   Perikles Simon   and Mark Pfeiffer   

Intensity description as exercise prescription is a main challenge for sport scientists and coaches. Most commonly used in endurance sports are percentages of the heart rate at Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS). Since the late 1970s, MLSS is approximated by several anaerobic thresholds based on lactate extraction during graded incremental tests. Since then, scientists look for non-invasive methods to approximate these thresholds. Our new approach uses the sports computer science Performance Potential model (PerPot) for determination. The antagonistic model PerPot models the relation between load (speed) and performance (heart rate). This investigation compares lactate based and PerPot simulated thresholds. Fifteen male handball players performed a graded incremental test with lactate extraction and continuous heart rate recording. Lactate measurement was used for determination of four established lactate-based anaerobic thresholds (OBLA, Dickhuth, Keul, Simon). Speed and heart rate processes were used for PerPot determination of the threshold. Both Pearson correlations (r=0.883 - r=0.895) and intraclass correlations (ICC=0.894 - ICC=0.932) show high correlations between lactate-based and PerPot simulated thresholds. Using anaerobic threshold (AT) for exercise prescription is the ideal case. Because of adaptation, AT changes and should therefore be determined periodically. In practice, this is rarely done because of high cost and difficult invasive determination in laboratory. PerPot provides a low cost, non-invasive method for AT determination. It is therefore an ideal method for verifying former results of sports medicine diagnostics periodically. In addition, simple portability of results to field is an advantage, because the graded incremental tests can also be performed outdoors.

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May 2017
<![CDATA[A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  5  Number  1  

Donna de Haan   

The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the Sport Policy factors that Lead to International Sporting Success (SPLISS) model was chosen with specific focus on Pillar 4 (talent identification and development systems). To assess the relevance or fit of these models, policy documentation from the British Equestrian Federation (BEF) which includes information on athlete profiling and performance pathways were reviewed. Results from this study indicate that talent identification and development of the rider at the point of specialization (micro-level) and performance/competition pathways (meso-level) have a degree of synergy. However, due to the potential longevity of riders' careers, and the required combination of an elite rider with an elite horse, it is difficult to map this at a senior level. The findings illustrate that due to these sport-specific variables, equestrianism does not 'fit' within these models and requires a unique 'dual athlete – horse and rider' talent identification and development system.

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May 2017
<![CDATA[A Motion Analysis in the Volleyball Spike - Part 2: Coordination and Performance Variability]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  4  

Ben Serrien   Jeroen Ooijen   Maggy Goossens   and Jean-Pierre Baeyens   

Part one of this study described the three-dimensional kinematics of male and female top level and junior elite volleyball players during a spike. Different strategies for generating a high impact speed for the hand were observed between the groups. This part focuses on variability in coordination and performance and will use a single-subject approach for the data-analysis. The research question concerns the relationship between coordination variability and skill level. Two hypotheses exist about this relationship: a continuous decrease of variability or a U-shaped relationship when skill level increases. We used different measures of skill level during this study. The discrete measure (top level vs. junior elite) showed no difference in coordination variability. The continuous measures showed both U-shaped and linear relationships with coordination variability when data from all groups were pooled together. No relationships were observed within the groups. Together with the insight gained from the mechanical analysis from part one, knowledge about the coordination variability can be used for guiding the training and learning process of youth elite volleyball players.

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Oct 2016
<![CDATA[A Motion Analysis in the Volleyball Spike - Part 1: Three-dimensional Kinematics and Performance]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  4  

Ben Serrien   Jeroen Ooijen   Maggy Goossens   and Jean-Pierre Baeyens   

In this study, three-dimensional kinematics and performance were analyzed for male and female top level and junior elite volleyball players in a spike, which is an essential offensive volleyball action. Top level players had higher impact speeds and jumping height than junior elite players for both genders and the male players had higher impact speeds and jumping height than the female players for both levels of expertise. For the analysis of the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder and elbow angles and angular velocities, Statistical Parametric Mapping was used. No differences were observed for the orientation angles of pelvis and trunk, indicating a set of invariant kinematics. The pelvis and trunk angular velocities on the other hand did show many interesting differences throughout the approach, cocking and acceleration phase of the spike. The shoulder and elbow angles and angular velocities also illustrated the different strategies used for generating high impact speeds. An important conclusion was that interaction effects between gender and level of expertise were mostly observed in variables from the shoulder and elbow, whereas pelvis and trunk velocities only presented significant main effects. These differences suggest how the motion pattern of the young elite athletes will change over the following years when they gradually make the change towards the highest competitive levels.

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Oct 2016
<![CDATA[Comparison of Eight Weeks Rhythmic Gymnastics, Pilates and Combined Training in Terms of Some Physical, Physiological and Motoric Parameters]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  4  

Sezen ?imen Polat   and Mehmet Günay   

A long and hard preparation process to improve motoric characteristics and technical requirements is needed for rhythmic gymnasts to become a competitor. Studies show that positive effects of pilates on body, resemble the effects of rhythmic gymnastics. This study is based on the idea that the preparation period for long rhythmic gymnastics training could be shortened by the support of pilates exercises. Additionally, comparing some physical, motor and physiological parameters of rhythmic gymnasts who had just started training either for rhythmic gymnastics, pilates [mat series] or combined [rhythmic gymnastics + pilates] for 8 weeks. 30 girl gymnasts whose average ages are 7,30 ± 1,41 years participated to the study. As the measurements and interpretations are based on little girls at the age of 7, all the families' approvals have been received before the study. Flamingo balance test, plate tapping, standing broad jump, sit-up test for 30 seconds, sit and reach flexibility test, bent arm hang, 10x5 m running and shuttle running test were performed pre and post training. Visual and auditory reaction and hand grip strength measurements were also included. Data analysis is conducted in SPSS 22.0 software package. Pre and posttest parameters were compared with Anova and Kruskall Wallis tests for significance and distribution of the data was tested with Shapiro-Wilk test. Significant development was observed for visual and auditory reaction, tapping plate, standing broad jump, 30 second sit-up test, sit and reach flexibility test, bent arm hang, 10×5m running in pilates training group; auditory reaction, 30sec sit-up, sit and reach flexibility in rhythmic gymnastics and pilates + rhythmic training groups. The results showed that rhythmic gymnastics training accompanied by pilates are more beneficial for the fundamental level girl gymnasts.

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Oct 2016
<![CDATA[Effects of a Deeper Countermovement on Vertical Jump Biomechanics after Three Weeks of Familiarisation - Preliminary Findings]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  4  

Wendy Balster   Cheryl Xue Er Lim   and Pui Wah Kong   

This pilot study investigated whether a deeper countermovement was beneficial after a training period for neuromuscular adaptation. Nine male participants practised deep countermovement jumps (2 sets × 10 jumps) at home daily for three weeks. After training, the kinematics and ground reaction forces of normal and deep countermovement jumps were assessed. Adopting a deeper countermovement resulted in lower squat depth [normal: 0.38 (0.08) m, deep: 0.50 (0.09) m, p = .008] and greater range of motion at the ankle, knee and hip (all p < .05). Participants did not, however, improve in jump height [normal: 0.58 (0.08) m, deep: 0.59 (0.09) m, p = .314]. Squatting down deeper does not have necessary result in a higher jump height for all individuals. The lack of difference in jump height may be explained by insufficient training duration and intensity, and/or poor use of arm swing in the deep countermovement jumps. Future studies can confirm these preliminary results with more participants.

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Oct 2016
<![CDATA[National Social Attitudes and Political Appeals in the Process of Rising of Competitive Sports in China]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  3  

Shu Shengfang   and Wang Mina   

There are three developing phases of Chinese competitive sports in term of national social attitudes and political appeals in the past sixty years. In the first 30 years, reluctance to show weakness or suffering disgrace reflected social attitudes, while the political appeals were to promote the national prestige, to wash off the shame of "Sick Man of East Asia" and to gain the international dignity in the worldwide playing fields; In the latter 30 years, the social attitudes appeared as the rising of nationalist sentiment, while the political appeals were to "bring about a great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation with the Olympic success". Since the Beijing Olympics, the national social attitude diversified while the Gold Medal became not as important as before. And the political appeals were the pursuit of "Harmonious World".

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Aug 2016
<![CDATA[The Effects of Aerobics Exercise Programmes on Body Composition and Some Physical Parameters for the Pre-obese Class 1 Obese Students at High School Aged 15-17]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  3  

G?kyürek, B.   S?kmen T.   and Usta, A.   

Today, it is known that adult obesity is a result of child and adolescent obesity. For this reason, to prevent obesity in adulthood, obesity must be controlled through organising exercise habits of adolescents in addition to organising other habits. Taking the importance of physical beauty in psychology of puberty period into consideration, the effects of aerobics exercise on the obese and fighting against obesity through exercise form the basis for our study to fight against obesity through the habit of exercise. Our study was conducted on 22 male, 27 female of high school level students through 12 weeks aerobics exercise programme, 3 days a week at least, approximately 60 minutes, interval training model. This study focuses on measurements of age, weight, gender characteristics, physical composition as anthropometric measurement (subcutaneous fat, peripheral and diametric measurement), stretching test (sit-reach test), strength test (hand dynamometer), standing long jump, vertical jump, sit-up and push-up.

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Aug 2016
<![CDATA[The Physical Effects of the Fitness Exercises]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  3  

Nigar Yaman   

In this study, the physical changes in 36 male participants were examined over 12 weeks, during which they have carried out fitness exercises to see whether there is a physical change in the individuals who prefer the type of fitness exercises that include walking, running, pedaling and weight exercises as a form of sportive activity. An exercise protocol including warm up, cool down, walking, running, pedaling and weight exercises in an average duration of 90 minutes was applied to the participants for 4 days a week during the period of the aforementioned 12 weeks. Including pre-exercises, the body weight, girth measurement, body fat percentages and body mass indexes were measured and noted in the fourth, eighth and twelfth weeks. The data was analyzed through one-way ANOVA tests for mean, standard deviation and correlated samplings. No significant difference was found in the body mass indexes of the participants. Biceps, chest, shoulder and thigh measurements showed a significant increase in the end of the 12 week period. The body fat percentages showed decreased results in all of the measurements when compared to the measurements of pre-exercise. As a result, the fitness exercises that were performed throughout the 12-week period, showed a positive benefit in the girth measurements and body fat percentages starting from the fourth week. Body mass indexes did not reflect any differences in relation with the increased muscle volume.

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Aug 2016
<![CDATA[Acute Effect of a Foam Roller on the Mechanical Properties of the Rectus Femoris Based on Tensiomyography in Soccer Players]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  2  

Francisco Ignacio Martínez-Cabrera   and Francisco Javier Nú?ez-Sánchez   

Tensiomyography (TMG) is a relatively new technique to assess the muscles mechanical properties in response to a single electrical stimulus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute effect of a foam roller (FR) in the rectus femoris muscle using TMG. Seventeen male professional soccer players (age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, height 180.5 ± 7.7 cm, and mass 73.6 ± 10.7 kg) performed 4 sets of with a duration of 15s using the foam roller (FR) on the dominant leg with 2 min of rest at 30 beats per minute. TMG measurements were performed at rest after the second and fourth sets for both the dominant and non-dominant leg (control). The TMG parameters analysed included stiffness (Dm), and contraction time (Tc). Substantial differences were not found between the legs at rest. For the non-dominant leg, substantial differences in Dm were found after the second and the fourth sets. For the dominant leg, substantial differences in Dm were not observed after the FR was applied. No differences in Tc were found for any of the measurements. Our results suggest that the use of a foam roller in slowly executed small sets maintains the muscle stiffness and the contraction time of the RF.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Static and Active Workstations for Improving Workplace Physical Activity and Sitting Time]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  2  

K. Jason Crandall   Battogtokh Zagdsuren   Mark A. Schafer   and T. Scott Lyons   

Purpose: There is growing evidence prolonged workplace sitting is associated with multiple health risks. Utilizing static and active workstations may help improve these health risks. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if providing access to a sit-stand workstation and a shared treadmill desk without a behavioural intervention could increase workplace physical activity and decrease sitting time. Methodology: Participants (N=15) were assigned to an experimental (sit-stand desk and shared treadmill desk; n=8) or control group (n=7) for seven weeks. No behavioural interventions were used to encourage participation. A physical activity questionnaire was administered at baseline and at the end of the study to assess workplace physical activity and sitting time. Participants wore an activity tracker (Fitbit One) to objectively assess daily footsteps and physically active hours. A mixed between-within subject analysis of variance was used to compare the groups (p < .05). Findings: There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the dependent variables. Although just half of the experimental group used the shared treadmill desk, the mean number of footsteps taken (8897.25) was well above the recommended >5000 steps/day. Practical Implications: This is the first study to examine the use of both static and active workstations to increase workplace physical activity and reduce sitting time without a behavioural intervention. Value: Combining static and active workstations with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote and motivate the participants may produce significant improvements in workplace physical activity and reductions in sitting time.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Developing Elementary Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  2  

Insook Kim   and Bomna Ko   

The purpose of this study was to investigate how curricular, content courses, and lessons are structured in ways to develop pre-service teachers' in-depth elementary content knowledge in physical education teacher education. Six elementary content course instructors' learning context data were collected from five physical education teacher education programs in the United States. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted to analyze the collected data. The results of this study indicated: (a) the physical education teacher education programs offered fewer learning opportunities to learn K-12 content; (b) the elementary content courses were structured with different levels of content foci; (c) a primary tool for measuring in-depth elementary content knowledge was written exams or quizzes; and (d) three dominant instructional approaches--lectures, peer teaching, and modeling-- intended to develop specialized content knowledge were incorporated in the lessons. The research findings may guide teacher educators to reform their teacher preparation programs in ways to facilitate pre-service teachers' elementary content knowledge acquisition necessary for successful teaching.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[High School Sport Participation: Does It Have an Impact on the Physical Activity Self-efficacy of Adolescent Males?]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  1  

Michael Downs   and Leisha Strachan   

Physical inactivity continues to be a major concern in the lives of youth. It is possible that participation in high school sport might contribute to enhancing self-efficacy which, in turn, would positively influence physical activity levels. In this study, the association between physical activity participation and self-efficacy for physical activity was measured in adolescent males from a private high school in Canada. Also, the possibility that self-efficacy levels differed between school sport participants and non-school sport participants was explored. The results of the Spearman's p test showed a moderate positive, and significant correlation between the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Self-Efficacy for Daily Physical Activity Questionnaire (SEPAQ) scores, r(113) = .571, p < .01. The multiple regression analysis showed that PAQ-A score significantly predicted SEPAQ scores, b = 10.95, t(113) = 6.63, p < .001. However, school sport participation did not significantly predict SEPAQ scores, b = 0.99, t(113) = 0.97, p > .05. Interestingly, PAQ-A scores and school sport participation explained a significant proportion of variance in SEPAQ scores, R^2= 0.33, F (2, 112) = 27.11, p < .001. Results from this study support previous research regarding the positive connection between physical activity and self-efficacy. These results also suggest that small increases in physical activity, whether through school sport or physical education, may influence not only physical health but psychological health for youth. Implications for male participation in physical activity are discussed along with ideas for increasing self-efficacy within the physical education context.

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Feb 2016
<![CDATA[Physical Exercise and the Environment: A Danger for the Lives of Athletes and/or Those Who Practice Physical Exercises]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  4  Number  1  

Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff   Carlos Aparecido Zamai   Sonia Regina Jurado   and Odanir Guerra   

In large cities, it is common for people to practice physical activities or exercise in large or busy streets and avenues with intense vehicle traffic. As a result, they ingest large amounts of carbon monoxide, thus constituting a great danger to both athletes and individuals who practice in this manner. There are two objectives in this study: (a) to investigate the physiological changes caused by CO and (b) to analyze how the physiological changes caused by CO influence health and performance. Material and Method: Since this is a little known topic in physical education, this paper uses exploratory research. We studied papers on physical exercise and the action of local pollutants considered inadequate for physical exercise. For such, we used the Scielo database (the Scientific Electronic Library Online - an electronic library covering a selected collection of Brazilian scientific journals) to verify these studies. The database was queried using terms registered in the Health Science Descriptors created by the Virtual Library of Health developed by the Medical Subject Headings of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, which allowed the use of common terminology in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. Results: Pollution also increases the risk of lung problems. The most significant problem with running in polluted environments is not the effect of a single day, but the repeated practice that can make the athlete more susceptible to respiratory problems, especially due to the dryness of the nasal airway.

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Feb 2016
<![CDATA[Frameworks of Team Processes in Sport: A Critical Review with Implications for Practitioners]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  3  

Jamie Collins   and Natalie Durand-Bush   

Researchers have directly or indirectly examined team processes that contribute to team functioning and effectiveness in sport. However, in doing so, they have typically focused on team cohesion, they have not consistently addressed the theoretical/conceptual frameworks underpinning their work, nor have they comprehensively derived implications for practice. Furthermore, existing meta-analyses and reviews on cohesion and team building address results of empirical studies and do not evaluate the specific theoretical/conceptual frameworks used to guide these studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to critically review theoretical/conceptual frameworks directly or indirectly addressing team processes in sport and derive implications for professional practice. Seven frameworks used to guide research and/or practice in sport were identified for inclusion in this study. Three frameworks were borrowed from general psychology and the other four stemmed from sport psychology. These frameworks targeted a variety of specific team processes and six different outcomes, the most common of which was cohesion. Specific team processes were categorized under broader team processes, the latter of which were linked to one of ten general themes. The theme pertaining to roles/norms was the most prevalent one as it was addressed in six out of the seven frameworks. Conversely, one of the least prevalent general themes related to goals; it was only discussed in two of the seven frameworks. Implications for practitioners aiming to optimize team processes in sport and recommendations for future research are presented.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[Examining the Influence of Different Physical Activity Training on the Postural Stability of University Students]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  3  

F. Orofino   F. Sgro   R.Coppola   C. Crescimanno   and M. Lipoma   

Static balance ability has a critical role in the execution of complex motor patterns as well as normal daily activities, and its efficiency could be improved by means of a regular and specific training program. In this study we investigated the relation between postural stability and different types of physical activities (PA) training among university students. Thirty-six students were enrolled and grouped into two PA categories: the Exergames category included subjects who use Nintendo Wii Balance Board gaming at least twice a week, and the Sport category included subjects who practiced sport activities at least twice a week. Subjects who did not practice structured sports or physical activities were enrolled as Control. Postural control was assessed by means of a normal standing balance test with open eyes (OE) and closed eyes (CE), respectively; a force plate was used to acquire data of the center of pressure (CoP) sway. From the CoP sway we were able to select two variables: the total displacement of sway (DOT) and the mean velocity. The mean velocity was estimated for antero-posterior (MVAP) and medio-lateral (MVML) directions, respectively. ANOVA revealed significant differences among groups for the three variables. We found that the mean of DOT and MVAP was significantly decreased in the Exergame's category compared with the others groups. Furthermore, the differences were higher for the CE than the OE test. The training programs based on the use of exergames seems to improve the postural control level of the aforementioned ability more than conventional sport training.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[Participation Motives of Saudi Arabian School Children towards Physical Activities and Sports: A Comparative Study]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  3  

Mohammed Hamdan Hashem Mohammed   and Varghese C Antony   

The objective of this study was to identify and compare the participation motives of school children towards engagement in physical activity. Two hundred and eighty students (Mage=17.65±0.95 years) were selected from two different types of schools, namely government school (N=134) and private school (N=146), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The instrument used to collect the data was Motivation for Physical Activities Measure- Revised by (Ryan et al., 1997). Ranking order was applied to identify the ‘most important reasons' and ‘least important reasons' for participation, and t- test was applied to compare means between the groups. Government and private school children showed higher mean values on interest/enjoyment and competence. Significant difference was observed on interest/enjoyment and fitness factor among school children. No significant difference was observed on competence, appearance, and social factors. Government school children ranked three important reasons for participation in physical activities as ‘because I wanted to be physically fit', ‘because I wanted to look or maintain weight so I look better', and ‘because I wanted to maintain my physical well-being'. Whereas private school children ranked best three reasons for engagement as, ‘because I want to look or maintain weight so I look better', because I want to improve my appearance, because I wanted to be physically fit'. The least important reason for participation was social factors for both types of school children.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[Study of Anticipation in Handball through Interactive Tests]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  3  

Varbanov Ilia   Ognian Tishinov   and Zshivka Zsheliaskova-Koynova   

Following a theoretical analysis of current trends in handball game and taking into consideration that the flow speed of game situations and the choice of technical and tactical methods, decisions and actions are subject to strict time, we tried to select appropriate videos for mental and motor activity in handball. They were classified into separate groups in order to create tests for assessing anticipation. Interactive software was created for selecting interactive tests, and the tactical issues, evaluation of the accuracy and response time for the surveyed handball players were set as well. The statistical processing realizes the implementation of the objective of determining (diagnose) the state (level) of anticipation, the age of handball players in their specific game environment under competitive conditions. The software development provides the researcher with a standard format of recording information of the experiment. At further development of the project, the algorithm analyzing the results achieved so far can be interpreted according to the new guidelines for the development of the idea of evaluation of game situations for surveyed athletes.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[Validating the Use of Heart Rate Variability for Estimating Energy Expenditure]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  2  

AH Robertson   K King   SD Ritchie   AP Gauthier   M Laurence   and SC Dorman   

The ability to measure free-living and activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) is useful for a variety of purposes. Heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring is emerging as a means for estimating EE and other physiological measures. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of HRV-derived EE across a range of physical intensities and during free-living. Participants (n=30) completed two treadmill tests (walk and VO2max) measuring EE via Indirect Calorimetry (IC) and with the FirstBeat Bodyguard HRV monitor. Participants also wore the HRV monitors continuously for four consecutive days under free-living conditions. During the walk test, HRV-EE estimates across analysis conditions correlated moderately with IC estimates of EE (r=0.60-0.75; p<0.05). During VO2max testing, HRV-EE estimates across analysis conditions correlated strongly with IC estimates of EE with (r=0.85-0.98; p<0.05). During free-living conditions, daily average and 4-day total HRV-EE estimates across all analysis conditions correlated strongly (r=0.75-0.98; p<0.05). HRV-EE estimation improves as activity-intensity increases. HRV-EE estimates improve further with the addition of IC-measured HRmax and VO2max, particularly at low intensities; however, meaningful differences were not seen between values when considering group means. HRV-EE estimates are sufficiently accurate to indicate this method possesses practical utility and may be used for individual EE monitoring.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Comparison of Dominant and Non-dominant Range of Motion in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers: A Pilot Study]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  2  

K. Jason Crandall   Taylor Carlin   and Abby Flynn   

Shoulder injuries may be prominent in baseball pitchers due to inflexibility of the shoulder and trunk. Differences may exist between pitchers' dominant and non-dominant shoulders and trunk. The purpose of this pilot study was to confirm prior research to compare dominant and non-dominant shoulder and trunk range of motion in fifteen (n = 15, 18-23 yrs.) collegiate pitchers. Trunk range of motion was measured using the Y-Balance Test. A goniometer was used to assess seven measurements of shoulder range of motion. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine statistical significance (p < .05). Shoulder extension (t (14) = -3.02, p = .009), internal rotation (t (14) -2.8, p = .013), horizontal abduction (t (14) =-2.17, p = .047), and Y-Balance Test (t (14) = -2.2, p = .044) were significantly greater in the non-dominant arm. The findings of our study suggest collegiate baseball coaches and trainers should create strength and conditioning programs that are balanced and focus on both dominant and non-dominant shoulder and trunk range of motion.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Senior Olympics: Never too Old to Play]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  2  

Jamie Harvey   Betty McNulty   Char Schmidt   and Shewanee Howard-Baptiste   

Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) offer suggestions for all people to be active. Whether a beginner or seasoned athlete, the PAG directs the older adult to cautiously and comfortably become active. With obesity rates rising amongst all age groups, older adults can combat obesity by becoming active in the Senior Olympics Games. Athletes who are at least 50 years old can dedicate their skills to play and compete in local district games in the even-year. This earns them the advancement to qualify to the national games the odd-year. Various reasons to participate include social interaction, fun, learning new skills, shared family time and competition. Research has expanded to measure cardiovascular endurance and bone health for the participating senior adults. Research studies provide a strong case for being active and emphasize how physical activity can improve balance and injury prevention. When an older adult commits to an individual sport or team, he/she can play for not only competition but also for enjoyment.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Outdoor Education as Aesthetic Pedagogical Design in Nature Space Understood as Thirdspace]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  3  Number  1  

Tone Pernille ?stern   and Egil Galaaen Gj?lme   

Outdoor education is a way of working where the teaching is moved out of the ordinary classroom. There are different ways of organizing and defining outdoor education, but a common feature is that it gives the pupils and teachers an opportunity to engage bodily in learning processes with all of their senses, navigate in teamwork and be in concrete contact and dialogue with the environment. Different ways of learning are put into action in the meeting with a multimodal and ‘alive’ environment. In this article, we look at outdoor education from an aesthetic pedagogical design perspective with a philosophical approach informed by the spatial ontology found in postmodern geography, art and philosophy. Our investigation is both theoretical and practice-based. We analyse empirical material collected from a 3-day long outdoor education project (in 2013) at a teacher education institution in Norway, and look at the student teachers’ (n=199) experiences and evaluations through the theoretical lenses of aesthetic pedagogical design. As a result, we articulate and discuss how outdoor education can be understood as aesthetic pedagogical design in “nature space” understood as “thirdspace”.

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Feb 2015
<![CDATA[The Paradox of Authority: the Body of Dance]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  5  

Aadya Kaktikar   

Authority of parampara projected through the medium of the Teacher (Guru) is the cornerstone of traditional dance pedagogy in India. In this paper I illustrate the paradox of the authority of the teacher/ tradition and examine the enabling and disabling effects of this discipline. As a performer and teacher of a traditional dance form, I examine the lived experience of learning a traditional dance form and the creation of a disciplined dancing body which becomes simultaneously, a site for preservation and continuous re-negotiation of tradition. The paper also explores the sub-structures of authority that permeate into the traditional dance class; simultaneously creating rubrics for transmission of knowledge and scaffolding learning while hindering individual agency and expression. Authority (of the teacher and the tradition) and its manifestations become the lens through which traditional dance pedagogy and its resulting narratives are examined.

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Sep 2014
<![CDATA[How the Korean Soap Opera Influence Sri lankan’s Life]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  5  

Shyama Jinasena   

This research paper determines how, the South Korean soap opera influence sri lankan’s life style. In 2012, Sri lanka Rupavahini cooperation introduced Korean soap opera to the Sri lankan home audience. That selected opera is famous in Korean & worldwide audience. It contains the Korean culture, religion, myths & also the Korean society. In the beginning of this Korean drama series Sri lankan audience was not allowed to observe this opera. Because of the culture, such as language and the era were the reasons it. Sri Lankan audience watched this drama for the first time as a result of their habit of time schedule. To prepare research findings the methodologies used were interviews and questionnaires. In addition attending as a research partner in the sri lankan civil society. How simple television production can be used as s tool for effective social changes & win millions of hearts and minds in the region was researched. Most writers wrote about that series & published newspaper articles and books about the theme of this story. Sri Lankans imitate Korean drama characters by their clothes, culture, walk, religion etc. As a result of the addicted audience Sri lankan market too blindly focused in this process. They introduced hairclip, dresses, shoes, makeup items & accessories. Influences of this drama created a big market potential among the lankan civil society. Likewise tuition masters, businessmen followed using the picture of female characters for their publicity. The hidden truth behind it is that they used the ideology of this soap opera for establishing in the Sri lankan civil society. Korean soap opera had changed the Sri lankan life by the successful characters and ideology.

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Sep 2014
<![CDATA[Buying Motives for Anabolic Supplements – An Analysis among German Recreational Athletes]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  5  

Daniel Eberhard   and Claudia Fantapié Altobelli   

The objective of this exploratory study was to gain first insights into the motives of recreational athletes for buying and consuming anabolic supplements. For this purpose we conducted a qualitative study among young males in Germany between April and May 2012. We used the means-end chain analysis as a methodological approach – a common qualitative research method to uncover buying motives through special in-depth interviews called “laddering”. The sample consisted of n=21 male recreational athletes aged from 21 to 28, all of whom engaged in resistance sports and miscellaneous other disciplines. The findings suggest that the economical use of resources, strive for appreciation amongst peers and by the opposite sex and reducing the risk of ineffective training are likely buying motives for this group.

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Sep 2014
<![CDATA[Compression Stockings and Aerobic Exercise: A Meta-Analysis]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  4  

Luke Vargo   and Sonya Sanderson   

The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine if wearing compression clothing affects athletic performance by increasing endurance and aerobic capacity as measured by improvements in both VO2 max and heart rate. Studies were found by using the search engines Google and Galileo, and by using search terms such as “compression garments and their effect on performance.” Only studies that examined compression clothing and its effect on endurance and aerobic capacity were used. Of the four studies, only one study concluded that compression clothing does improve performance (P<0.05), whereas the other three found that compression clothing were highly effective with reducing delayed on-set muscle soreness (P=0.05) and/or leg edema when wearing compression stockings (effect sizes = 0.00-0.65). All studies were performed on recreational to well-trained athletes. In conclusion, compression clothing may be more physiological than physical for improving endurance.

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Jul 2014
<![CDATA[Use of Task-Based Activities in the Teaching of Drama]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  4  

Shilpagauri Prasad Ganpule   

Drama, as a genre of literature, is often considered to be an interesting area in teaching and learning situations. Many methods and techniques are used while teaching drama in an ESL classroom. It is observed that the use of task-based activities proves to be effective and beneficial in the teaching of drama. The present paper strives to focus on the pivotal role of the task-based activities in the teaching and understanding of drama. The paper presents the varied task-based activities that can be used while teaching Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest [1] at the undergraduate level. The task-based activities help the students to comprehend the text in a better way. . In fact students’ active involvement and participation in the task-based activities not only enhance their understanding of drama but also help them to unravel the plethora of complex meanings woven in the dramatic text. Through the involvement of the students in the task-based activities they learn to infer, interrogate, and interpret the dramatic text. They make guesses, deduce and derive meanings and through inference and reasoning strive to discover the dramatic text. Thus the present paper makes an attempt to prove that the use of the task-based activities in the teaching of drama not only brings in enjoyment but also enhances the students’ understanding of the dramatic text.

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Jul 2014
<![CDATA[Comparative Study of the Intuition in the Artist and the Psychological Process of Sublimation in the Creation of Artistic Work in Plato and Freud Viewpoints]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  4  

Shila Sheedfar   Majid Asadi Farsani   and Razieh Mokhtari Dehkordi   

Various approaches in the formation of artistic work has created a vast arena of highly key issues in philosophy and psychology areas; the two highly important intuition and sublimation categories are among those concerns. The main topic in this research is creating an artistic pieces and parallel viewpoint and compatibility of the two categories in it and the path it has adopted between the two areas of philosophy and psychology. In the present study, authors search the role of intuition based on Plato's viewpoints, especially in Ion epistle and sublimation in Freud's viewpoint in creation and formation of artistic work and then convergence and unity of these two theorists in two different media with single result in artistic creation. The present research provides an analytical description and data is collected in literature review.

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Jul 2014
<![CDATA[Forms and Boundaries of Art with Aesthetic Cognition in Art Therapy]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  3  

Akila L. K.   

The point of departure for this essay is two assumptions, the first is that art has no boundaries and brings out aesthetic cognition of all kinds of feelings and thoughts the second is that art as therapy is a brain training modality which is envisaged to frame brains. This brief report discusses the significance of art, art therapy, and the forms, which was developed from theory and research works of several fields (e.g., Art, Art therapy, Psychotherapy, Philosophy, religious and cultural fields etc.). A treatment of scholars, who have exerted on the brain, art, forms and boundaries, including Dissanayake, Coomaraswamy, Stella kramrisch, Shaun Mcniff, Judith Rubin, Zeki and others, is furnished to support the theoretical understanding. The main objective of this article is to provide (1) a viewpoint on art, forms and boundaries, to convey the difference between art piece, artwork and art, thereby; a sincere attempt is made to ascertain that art is knowledge of creating process, which has no forms or boundaries; and (2) to emphasize on art as therapy. Act of involving in the art process set off the subconscious mind towards greater awareness and realization, which is therapeutic by itself. Unfortunately, though we have copious evidence on the benefits of art, art therapy display predilection towards psychotherapeutic benefits. Art as therapy trains the mind to be stabilized and prevent the animal instinct or undesirable attitudes and problems that may otherwise arise. Thereby, suppressing the negative emotions; keeps the mind and body in control and avoids seeking external help.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[Challenging the Canonical Framework of Indian Art History: Temple Murals as Popular Visual Culture]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  3  

Swapna Sathish   

Indian art history is hindered by an exclusionist agenda where visual manifestations of culture are segregated as art and craft. The ancient religious mural tradition in southern India is acknowledged as art due to royal patronage and the position of painting as an adjunct to temple architecture and sculpture. In Indian art history, the canonical mural tradition is seen as having ended in 19th century. But is it really dead? Contemporary temple murals boast the same themes and occupy the same sites, albeit in an altered technique and style. Although their roots are traditional, they are considered different in terms of material technology, their hybrid origins and in their perception as kitsch, and therefore low art. These contemporary religious murals have been excluded from art historical study, with scholarly writing in the field lapsing at the perceived end of tradition with the Nayaka period. This paper questions the above premise and privileges the popular, seeking to repudiate the idea of separation of high and low art, using contemporary temple murals in Tamil Nadu as case study. Plurality of expression needs to be embraced within the mainstream of Indian art. These murals should be seen as a trajectory of traditional painting in their contextualization within the mural tradition and in a modern democratic polity. Positions have changed for the artist, patrons and the paintings themselves. Indian art history needs to be rewritten with a predilection towards inclusivity, bringing within its ambit popular visual culture, rather than divorcing it from its past.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[Rumination of Music on Buddhism and Hinduism]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  3  

Shveata Misra   and Ina Shastri   

Universe is Naad i.e. The sound and the vibration. Universe has originated from the pattern of frequency and therefore the matters that seem firm including the emotional, physical and mental and even the spiritual realms are all through the Naad: the sound and the vibratory basis. Einstein even formulated and accepted this fact of origin of universe. According to “Einstein”: ‘Every atom and molecule is formed out of energy vibrations’. Everything around us is musical. Music gives us the capability to express the deepest intuitive feeling of human soul. Every individual has unlike ways of evincing the inner self through different forms of habituating music. Some prefer just listening to different genres of music, other might just like to play an instrument and some prefer to meditate or chant holy hymns or sincere chants of praise, which helps in lifting up the mind to a sublime state. Music has played crucial role in spreading religious chants to a great extent especially in Hinduism and Buddhism. In Hinduism ‘Om’ and in Buddhism ‘Om Mani Padme Hum’ and ‘Nam Myoh Renge Kyo’ has played an awe-inspiring role in human beings life, through the mystical vibrations that generates while chanting these hymns.Further in my paper I’ll be elaborating more on the reflection of music on Buddhism including the chants: Om, ‘Om Mani Padme Hum’ and ‘Nam Myoh Renge Kyo’ with brief historical background, it’s effect on body and personality when chanted melodiously. There is also a strong relationship between music and health in Buddhism.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[Application of Digital Teaching Materials in Art Education – Example of “Ethnic Arts Research Topics” at National Dong Hwa University]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  2  

Lee Chao-Ying   

This paper focuses on the use digital teaching materials and innovative method in instruction on the anthropology of art, including the world's cultures and ethnic arts. Taking the class “Ethnic Arts Research Topics” in the master's program at National Dong Hwa University in 2009 an example, this paper examines the relationship between ethnic arts and the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and also explores the nearly-forgotten oral cultures and art traditions of non-Western ethnic groups. From a geographical perspective, research on the world's ethnic arts may focus on Europe, Asia, the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, and each of these regions has its own artistic characteristics. Research on the relationship between Taiwan’s art and culture and that of other global regions is also included in this class, which combines the research methods of art history with those of anthropology, and it is hoped that this approach will enable a new interchange platform to be established. Thinking about artifacts also leads into the complex relationship between material culture and contemporary art. At least three stages can be identified when a historical perspective is applied to non-Western art: primitive art, colonial art, and contemporary art. The class also examines the historical development of Taiwan's indigenous art, and further discusses how contemporary ethnic art is handed down from one generation to another, while adopting innovations along the way. When designing teaching materials for the class, different sessions variously included ethnographic films, exhibits of cultural artifacts, displays of music and dance ceremonies and performances, field videos and photographs, introduction to e-Museum sites and relevant films, and use of a blog to discuss visual art and images with students. In general, digital teaching materials comprised an important part of the program. In addition, students’ assignments could be completed employing multimedia methods, including use of online materials, music, film, ethnography, tourism advertisements, exhibitions, cultural performances, and interviews. With regard to visual art, it was necessary to find images connected with cultural artifacts, and then convert them to PowerPoint documents. Topics requiring use of visual art included the cultural implications of Maya stone carving, the Kingdom of Benin’s sculpture, the consumptive function of visual art of Vietnamese restaurants, and transformation of Taroko indigenous cloth weaving into a cultural innovative industry. With regard to cultural heritage, many images concerning field research and films from community websites are employed in an introductory role. Some relevant topics in the class include "Hakka tobacco houses – from industrial buildings to communal awareness," and Sino-Russian buildings in Manzhouli and their prospects. With regard to exhibitions and performances, many resources concerning the world's music and dance can be found on the Internet, and can be connected with traditional and modern anthropological approaches. Relevant topics in the class include discussion of how Taiwan’s popular belly dance and Cambodia’s “Angkor culture” have been handed down over several generations and exhibited or performed. Other issues explored in the class include the social connotations of traditional “court” and “popular” dances, and the current status of and dilemmas facing Taiwan’s shadow puppet shows. By embracing interaction with the online world and visual exhibitions and performances, this class promotes new approaches to instruction in visual culture and communication of music and dance performances.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Effects of Vibration on Dynamic and Stabiliser Muscle Activities during the Press Up]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  2  

Dan Robbins   Shane Bone   Mark Chapman   and Mark Goss-Sampson   

A pilot study investigating the influence of vibration during press ups on myoelectrical activity of both dynamic and stabiliser muscles. Nine male participants (21.1 ± 3.4 years, 1.68 ± 0.03 m, 72.3 ± 9.5 kg), performed press ups under 3 conditions: without vibration, low amplitude and frequency vibration (30L; 1.2 mm, 30 Hz) high amplitude and frequency vibration (40H; 1.9 mm, 40 Hz). Press ups were completed in a randomised order for a period of 15 s with 3 min rest. 3D motion capture with synchronous surface electromyography (EMG) of dynamic muscles (triceps, pectoralis major) and stabiliser muscles (serratus anterior, lower trapezius muscles). The introduction of vibration to press ups did not result in kinematic changes to exercises. No muscles analysed displayed significant increases in mean EMG amplitude in response to 30L VIB in the eccentric or the concentric phase of the exercise. 40H Vibration significantly increased EMG amplitudes of all muscles (p < 0.05) except the lower trapezius. Greater increases were observed during the concentric phase of movement. These results indicate that vibration influences muscle activity during press up exercises. However, further studies are required including additional information such as the transmission of vibration to the neck and head, should be completed.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Efficacy of Compression Socks to Enhance Recovery in Distance Athletes]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  2  

Lauran Fletcher   Scot Raab   Sonya Sanderson   and Luke Vargo   

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect graduated compression socks had on lower leg muscle swelling and soreness after a 2 hour (hr) run at a speed eliciting a heart rate (HR) 10-15% lower than their HR at lactate threshold established during a baseline assessment. Compression socks were worn during the run and for 8 hrs after the completion of the run. Baseline lower extremity (LE) volumes were measured using water displacement prior, immediately post and 24 hrs after the 2 hr run. Muscle discomfort was measured using an algometry prior to the 2 hr run and approximately 24 hrs after. Compression socks decreased LE volume measurements during and after long distance running in moderately trained distance runners but insignificantly. They also limited muscle soreness, but insignificantly. The results of this study support that compression stockings fail to enhance performance.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Emerging Appropriate Fuzziness: A Spatiotemporal Observation of Post-Martial Law Taiwan Literature and Cinema]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  1  

Francis Chia-Hui Lin   

Taiwan’s some four hundred years history, culturally and politically, is inscribed by relationships between rulers and the ruled that shape its social sophistication and gaps between forms of high culture and popular culture. Its built environment, inevitably, echoes this complexity as a representation. Examining Taiwan’s very recent built environment, most critically, this phenomenon is highlighted by the uncertainty that translates Taiwan society’s anxiety about connecting the yet passed authoritarian past and the seemingly democratic present when its post-war Martial Law period was officially terminated in 1987. This paper observes the immediate historicity today in Taiwan that represents this uncertainty, through scrutinising different cultural forms which the built environment has been identically (re)represented. As a central argument, this paper schematises a context which mediates different spatial objects that are derived from different cultural political origins, literature and cinema, where as texts in one context could be relevant, contradictory or even parallel, and suggests a form of appropriate fuzziness. This form, unlike the social conundrum driven by the awkward cultural and political status of Taiwan society, through ways of urbanisation, geo-identification and spatial idealisation, has pinpointed the possibility that directs Taiwan’s spatial evolution on the road ahead.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Color Sensation in Figurative Painting]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  2  Number  1  

Alberto Carroggio De Molina   

The figurative painter accesses very complex levels of knowledge. To produce a painting requires, first, a deep analysis of the image of the reality and, afterwards, the study of the reconstruction of this reality. This is not about a process of copying, but a process of the comprehension of the concepts that appear in the representation. The drawing guides us in the process of the production of the surface and in the distribution of the colours that, after all, are the data with which the vision mechanism builds the visual reality. Knowing the colour and its behaviour have always been a requirement for the figurative painter. From that knowledge we can draw wider conclusions.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[UK Adolescent School Pupils’ Beliefs about Participation in Extra-Curricular Dance]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  3  

Mr Steven D. Anderson   Dr Sandra D. Leyland   and Dr Jonathan Ling   

Background/Objectives: Dance is part of the National Curriculum for schools in the United Kingdom (UK) and many schools also offer dance as an extra-curricular activity. However, motivation to participate appears to be low. The purpose of this study was to identify the beliefs of UK adolescent school pupils that underpin motivation to participate in extra-curricular dance based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) [1]. Method/Design: We employed a semi-qualitative method to elicit salient outcome (instrumental and affective), normative and control beliefs about extra-curricular dance participation. Participants were 28 schoolchildren aged 11-13. Content analysis was used to quantify the beliefs cited based on sample frequency. Results: The most cited three instrumental outcome beliefs were, in rank order, use of time, enjoyment, and impact on ability. Affective outcome beliefs were enjoyment, socialising, and expressing myself. Social referents were family, peers, and (non-dance) teachers. Control beliefs were accessibility, dance competence, and time and commitments. Conclusions: The results presented represent the beliefs of a small sample of schoolchildren regarding their motivation for extra-curricular dance participation. Ultimately these beliefs can be used to aid the development of strategies to enhance motivation for extra-curricular activities such as dance with this age group.

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Nov 2013
<![CDATA[Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation - Jazz Harmony and Solo Improvisation Created by Means of Evolutionary Algorithms with Automatic Fitness]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  3  

Kjell B?ckman   

This paper describes the Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation (EJI) system for creation of jazz harmony and jazz solo improvisations based on evolutionary algorithms with automatic evaluation. The evaluation function is implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the chord progression and solo line, and alignment to different optimal intensity increase and relaxation curves. The evaluation function is based on the author’s solo analysis of 73 great masters’ solo characteristics and their techniques used for build-up of jazz solos. The results have been evaluated by our live jazz group and used in jam sessions, some of which have been recorded and made available for listening at the links given later.

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Nov 2013
<![CDATA[The Relationship between Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety on Performance of Student-Athletes of Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP)]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  3  

Vincent A. Parnabas   Yahaya Mahamood   and Julinamary Parnabas   

Recent evidence suggests that student-athletes may experience greater levels of stress or anxiety due to the dual demands of athletics and academics placed on them. In today’s MASUM (Sport between Universities) competitive sports, a lot of pressure is placed on collegiate athletes to perform the excellence level. Sports psychologists have long believed that high levels of anxiety during competition are harmful, worsening performance and even leading to dropout. Anxiety consists of two subcomponents, cognitive and somatic anxiety, which influence performance. The cognitive is the mental component, which is characterized by negative expectations about success or self-evaluation, negative self-talk, worries about performance, images of failure, inability to concentrate, and disrupted attention. While, the somatic is the physiological element, which is related to autonomic arousals. The main purpose of this study was to examine the levels of anxiety of somatic and cognitive, before and during competition among student-athletes. The participants of this study were recruited from Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP). The instrument used for the study comprised of a 27-item Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2, which had been distributed during MASUM (Sport between Universities) competition to the student-athletes. The participants of this study were recruited from Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP). The sample consisted of 112 athletes, with national athletes (N=21), state athletes (N=33), district athletes (N=23), and university athletes (N= 35). The results showed that elite or national athletes exhibited lower levels of somatic and cognitive anxiety than non-elite athletes. The result also showed that the exits of negative correlation between cognitive anxiety and sport performance, and somatic anxiety and sport performance. Sport psychologists, sport counselors and coaches should use the present findings to recommend coping strategies to university and district level athletes that are appropriate for dealing with their athletes’ cognitive and somatic anxiety.

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Nov 2013
<![CDATA[Ticket Pricing in European Football-Analysis and Implications]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  2  

Gerd  Nufer and Jan Fischer 

In Europe, football is undeniably sport No. 1. European football clubs attract millions of fans to the venue every season. Despite the highest attendance in European football, the German Bundesliga teams do not capitalise on ticket sales. Surprisingly, the Bundesliga ticket prices are the cheapest among Europe’s top leagues. As the price is the most effective profit driver, better pricing decisions can drive revenues and profits up without any upfront investment. The paper comprises a thorough analysis of match day and season ticket prices in the German Bundesliga in comparison to the pricing in other top European football leagues. Derived from the analysis, specific recommendations and implications for pricing strategies in regard of fan acceptance in football are presented. Furthermore, the paper attempts to answer the question of whether revenue management and dynamic pricing could be utilised by football clubs as a profit enhancing pricing tool in the future.

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Sep 2013
<![CDATA[Approach to Effective Practice Strategies in Music David Benders]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  2  

David Benders 

The practice of practicing music should be a meaningful experience that produces musicians with a lifelong love of music. The use an organized practice system that includes goal setting, specific practice strategies, self and teacher assessment, and the development of intrinsic motivation, lays a foundation for musical success. In the classroom, teachers model efficient practice techniques and establish classroom routines that encourage cooperation, and reward individual progress instead of competition. Evidence provided by research demonstrates the need of teachers to abandon the practice of “time served” and recorded, to training young musicians to systematically practice.

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Sep 2013
<![CDATA[Level of Sport Performance of Universiti Malaya (UM) Athletes]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  2  

Vincent A. Parnabas Yahaya Mahamood and Julinamary Parnabas 

Student-athletes used a lot of their time on training and preparation for competition, especially MASUM (Sport between Universities), which held every year. Sex has been identified as an important variable of athletic performance through the impact of height, weight, fat percentage, muscle mass, aerobic capacity or anaerobic threshold as a result of genetic and hormonal differences. Besides that, the environment, aim and perception of athletes in individual and team sports are different and this also can influence their performance in sport. The main purpose of this study was to examine the levels of performance among gender and different types of sports (Team and Individual). The participants of this study were recruited from Universiti Malaya (UM). Level of Sport Performance Scale (LSPS), contain 30 items, which measures 7 important elements (Speed, Core Training Workout, deal with stress and anxiety, tolerance of pain, confident, deal with distraction and satisfaction) of sport performance were used in the study. The data were collected at the end of the competition. The sample consisted of 79 athletes, with male athletes (N=49) and female athletes (N=30). While individual sport athletes (N=43), and team sport athletes (N= 36).This study confirms that the performances of male athletes are higher than female athletes. The results also showed that the individual athletes perform better than team athletes. Athletes of individual sports worked harder for competition, as a sole performer, athlete got no one to rely on. Whereas in team sports most athletes knew of no matter how well or how poorly one performs, it's up to the team as a whole to work together and win. The results supported a few previous studies. This current sports performance analysis enables the sport psychologist and coaches to improve sporting performance of female and team athletes.

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Sep 2013
<![CDATA[Correlation Analysis between Soccer Game World Ranking and Player League Distribution]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  2  

Sandgren Evelina Karlsson Mia and Ji-Guo Yu 

Nowadays professional soccer player trading between clubs/leagues is very common. Soccer players could be employed in foreign clubs/leagues, but when international competitive events come, the elite players are recruited to compose a national team. One can expect that the higher ranking of a national team, the more players are employed by the top soccer leagues. However, the relationship between the two issues has never been studied early. In the study, seven national soccer teams were selected from a list of the world top 35 soccer teams of year 2010[created by the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA)]. The 7 teams are Spain, England, Argentina, Germany, USA, Ghana and Sweden, across the full range of the list, thus, representing different levels of the world. On basis of the position of the 7 teams in the world ranking, an order ranking for the 7 teams was created. To identify player distribution of the 7 teams in different quality/level of soccer leagues, a league ranking including the top 25 soccer leagues in the world created by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics (IFFHS) was used. For each of the 7 teams, its player distribution in different soccer leagues was classified. On basis of the league ranking and the number of player(s) of each team in different leagues, calculated team point was calculated for each team. According to the amount of the calculated point, a calculated team ranking was obtained. Correlation analysis was performed between the two rankings: the order ranking and the calculated team ranking. The results showed a high and positive correlation between the two variables. We concluded that the more players are employed in higher ranking leagues the higher world ranking of a national team.

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Sep 2013
<![CDATA[Assessing and Including Students with Disabilities in Summer Programs]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  2  

Linda Johnston Ed.D Betty McNulty Ed.D Merwin A. McCoy Cheryl Robinson Ph.D and Lawrence A. Beard 

Recreation and leisure activities are important to the quality of life for all individuals. Through various activities, individuals have opportunities to improve their overall health, self-concept, develop social skills and become part of a small community group. With the emphasis on including individuals with disabilities and good health within the community, it is important that all individuals are provided with this opportunity. Summer programs to include students with a diagnosed disability are becoming more accessible and available. Parents oftentimes look for opportunities for their children during the summer months, either in the forms of day, overnight camps or enrichment type activities. While many camps and summer programs exist specifically for students with a diagnosed disability, there are programs that are more inclusive and provide specific accommodations to assure successful inclusion of all types of children. Public institutions and entities are required by law to make summer programs available to all children. This paper will present some concrete steps to help ensure that all students, including students with disabilities, can, to the maximum extent appropriate, participate in the summer camp programs.

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Sep 2013
<![CDATA[Self-reflection in Modernism, Post-Modernism and Abbas Kiarostami and Jean Luc Godard's Cinema]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  1  

Asghar fahimifar and Asadollah Gholamali 

This paper, has presented film-making frameworks relying mostly on modern and post-modern movies and the essential expression of self-reflection. The post-modern movies are in some respects different from the modern and classic ones. However, they still benefit from past achievements. The element of self-reflection is obvious in Godard's works which connotes the reality of their filming. In especially most of his latest works, Abbas Kiarostami also takes benefit from this technique. The present article analyses these two directors' viewpoints and presents the obtained influences on classic, modern, and post-modern movies. The expression of self-reflection in their works leads to art maturation. The obtained results of this research offer the related covert and overt values benefiting from the influencing process of three decades and the effect put on spectators in 15 phases. These results are considered qualitatively and quantitatively of great importance.

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Jul 2013
<![CDATA[Effects and Mechanisms of Tapering in Maximizing Muscular Power]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  1  

André Br?nnstr?m Anton Rova and Ji-Guo Yu 

Muscle power is of great importance in most sports, and its development is one of the most fundamental physiological adaptations for improving physical performance. In order to optimize competition performance, athletes usually decrease training load before competition, the so-called tapering, to allow physiological and psychological recovery from accumulated training stress. Tapering could be conducted through changes in training volume, intensity and/or frequency, but training volume seems to be most effective in optimizing muscular power. There are two main types of tapering: progressive tapering and one-step tapering. Currently, there is no general conclusion on tapering duration. The physiological mechanisms regarding tapering effects on neuromuscular system are largely unknown. Generally, it is believed that sustained maximal muscular power after tapering is obtained through maintaining adaptations in muscle fiber size, fiber type and neural adaptations whereas increased maximal muscular power after tapering is assumed mainly through both physiological and psychological recovery. We believe that increased maximal muscular power after tapering may also rely on higher neural drive and increased muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), especially in type IIA muscle fibers. Complete rest is a special form of tapering and it usually only leads to sustained maximal power. This effect is believed to be associated with decreased muscle CSA and a transformation of muscle fibers from type IIA to type IIX.

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Jul 2013
<![CDATA[Champion Determining System: Do Playoffs Work?]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  1  

Mark Swanstrom and Charlie Penrod 

Almost everyone -- including fans, analysts, and politicians -- seems to complain about the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) and its method for determining the national champion of college football. While people clamor to let teams win it "on the field" in a playoff system, the reality is that upsets happen and sometimes the best team doesn't win. This paper examines the results of a hypothetical league where each team is randomly assigned a power score so that the "best" team is known. It then simulates games using the teams' power scores to determine the odds of winning each game. The actual winner and margin of victory of each game is randomly determined based on the odds for each game. This process is followed to create an entire season of games and one hundred seasons are simulated in this paper. The champion for each season is determined using both a quantitative formula and a playoff. The performance of the different methods is determined by how well it does in choosing the "best" team as the champion. Results indicate that a quantitative formula does a better job of choosing the best team as the champion than does the playoff system.

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Jul 2013
<![CDATA[An Investigation into Participation Trends by Wheelchair Sports Players at the Zimbabwe Paralympic Games]]> Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  1  Number  1  

Bhekuzulu Khumalo Ignatius Onyewandume John Bae and Shadreck Dube 

Introduction: Disability or the disablement process is manifested in the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. There are general regulations for accessibility inside a building, among such are: Entrance doors, service desk, lifts, stairs, corridors, water closet (WC), and dressing rooms. This research was guided by the United Nations (UN) Accessibility for the Disabled: A Design Manual for a Barrier Free Environment, a document by the UN High Commission for human rights, designed to guide and set standards for built environment accessibility by the disabled. The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) recognises 6 different disability groups: amputees, athletes with Cerebral Palsy (CP), blind or visually impaired athletes, spinal cord injured athletes, athletes with an intellectual/learning disability, other athletes (les autres) with a physical disability who do not fit into the above 5 categories. This research focused on amputees, spinal cord injured athletes and the other athletes with a physical disability e.g. as a result of polio or accidents, who participate in wheel chair basketball and/or tennis. This study aimed at identify problems associated with access to Zimbabwean sport facilities by disabled consumers. The researcher observed that wheelchair sports is failing to attract participants because of challenges faced in accessing sporting facilities, due to: Challenges faced in transport/road usage, to and from sporting facilities. Non adaptation of the sports facilities. Non availability of equipment, e.g. the wheel chairs and rackets. Lack of access to equipment. Methods: Randomly selected wheelchair sports players from Zimbabwe are interviewed and group discussions carried out. Seventy (70) respondents 47 (67.1%) males and 23 (32.9%) females participated. The majority (62.9%) are above 25 years of age, only 22.9% are 20 years or below, all the females taking part in this research were over 30 years old. Results and Discussion: The results are that the barriers to participation are a result of an unfriendly and non-adapted transport system, poverty, nature of occupation, lack of access to equipment and non-adapted facilities providing health and safety risks over and above accessibility challenges. Conclusion and Recommendations: This research revealed a list of barriers to wheelchair sports participation opening avenues for further research in the areas of mainstreaming and Paralympic sports participation in Zimbabwe.

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Jul 2013
成上人色爱