<![CDATA[Universal Journal of Psychology]]> en-us 2020-05-29 19:42:12 2020-05-29 19:42:12 ZWWY RSS Generator <![CDATA[Predictor Role of the Attachment Styles of Mothers on Anxiety Level of Children Starting Primary Schools Preparation]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  8  Number  1  

Ayhan Babaroglu   

This study aims at examining the predictor role of attachment styles of mothers on the anxiety level of children starting primary school. The study is conducted with 144 mothers who have children who will be starting primary school in the next term. General Information Form, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (Parent's Form) and Adult Attachment Scale were used to collect data in the study, which is designed with the relational screening model. Kolmogorov-Simirnov test was used to ensure normality assumption in data analysis and it was found that normality assumption of data was fulfilled substantially as a result of the analysis. Thus, parametrical statistical methods were preferred. DUNCAN test was used to determine the groups creating the difference, when there was a difference based on the ANOVA test result. A relationship was found between the mother's attachment styles and sex, income level, and child's reaction to separation from the mother and mother's reaction to separation from the child in the study. However, a relationship could not be found between variables such as the mother's attachment style and number of children, mother's post-partum depression condition, presence of psychosomatic complaints reported by children and whether the child experienced any problems in adjustment to school or not. It was found that secure attachment of the mother was a predictor for the child's panic attack-agoraphobia, fear of physical injury and separation anxiety. Secure attachment of the mother reduces the anxiety in children. The output has shown that the mother transferred the attachment behavior to her children.

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Apr 2020
<![CDATA[Analytical Study of Styles of Love among Secondary School Adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  8  Number  1  

Uju Christiana Nwanna   

Adolescence is an important developmental period when there is increase in adolescents' quest for romantic relationships; love at this period can become confusing. This study analysed the styles of love among adolescents of secondary schools in Anambra state, Nigeria. One research question guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A sample size of 1015 secondary school adolescents was selected from a population size of 32,217 adolescents through simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Research question was answered using range of summated scores and percentages while z-test and ANOVA were respectively used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from the study revealed among others that majority of the adolescents are aware of the different styles of love. Based on the findings, implications of the study were noted and recommendations made that school guidance and counselling services and programmes for educating the students should focus on how to make the best of relationship choice based on the styles of love and the dangers of making the wrong choice of love in such early stage of development.

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Apr 2020
<![CDATA[The Influence of Evolutionary Psychology on Human Mating and Sexual Behavior]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  4  

Nida Mohammad Fayyaz   

Over the course of history, human beings have taken keen interest in the mating activity. The survival of the human species has been dependent on sexual mating and human reproduction; the need for sexual companionship has played a pivotal role in building societies and establishing social as well as intimate relationships. To overcome the problem of finding a suitable sexual partner, men and women adopt different strategies, based on their roles in the society. This paper discusses the impact of Evolutionary Psychology on Human mating and sexual behavior. David Buss's Sexual Strategies Theory is considered one of the major research programs to investigate how this relationship works. This paper aims to provide an emotional and cultural perspective on how evolutionary psychology has influenced human sexual and mating behaviors. It can be said that Buss's theory, despite being one of its kind, has failed to look at the complete picture. These limitations are due to various reasons; such as over emphasis on the polygamous nature of men, the evaluation of parental investment of both sexes, the problems each of the sexes can solve by using these strategies and how mating is considered an individual activity instead of a cooperative one. The cultural, philosophical and emotional take on the evolution of human sexual behavior brings a fresh and creative outlook.

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Oct 2019
<![CDATA[Prevention of Children Sexual Abuse by Active Learning to Elementary School Students in West Jakarta Indonesia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  3  

Safitri M   Aziz Luthfi   and Euis Heryati   

The number of sexual abuse in children as the victims has increased year to year. Technology development is believed as one of the reasons the increasement of sexual abuse. The purpose of this research is to give the knowledge and get a picture that happened to children about sexual abuse by making visual model and share it by active learning method. This study is using quasi experiment method, through training with Active learning method. The respondents are 232 students from 3 elementary school in West Jakarta Indonesia. The measurement data of sexual abuse knowledge with pre and post questionnaire, and peer group discussion. The results showed that many students still in the not knowing the kinds of sexual abuse and or who possibly could be the offender, but few of them already recognized the kind of sexual behavior, either self-experience or from what they saw around them. The active learning method was effective to increase knowledge about the offender and the type of sexual abuse to Elementary School Students in West Jakarta Indonesia, with test results differ to p0, 00.

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Jul 2019
<![CDATA[Prevalence of Cognitive Distortion and Antisocial Behavior among Bangladeshi Adolescent in Higher Secondary School]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  3  

Taslima Begum   

Over the past 50 years, the rate of antisocial behaviors have increased in frequency and severity among children and adolescent. In a number of studies, cognitive distortions have been shown to be directly related to criminal and antisocial behavior. Hence, it is important to check the frequency of antisocial behavior among adolescent in every society. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cognitive distortion or antisocial behavior among higher secondary adolescent. To determine the cognitive distortion and antisocial behavior the study used the Bangla Version of HIT questionnaire. To measure the prevalence, at first we determine the cutoff score for cognitive distortion and antisocial behavior using ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity and Youden Index. The target sample were 191 higher secondary school going adolescent who are consider as not delinquent or normal sample. Another group of 30 samples was included from juvenile Correction Center considering as delinquent sample to determine the cutoff score. The result found the cutoff score for cognitive distortion or antisocial behavior is 76.5. The result of the study was alarming and found that 42.7% adolescent were cognitively distorted and had antisocial behavior. The study also found that boys had more antisocial behavior than girls (44.6% vs 42.7%). The result also found that socio economic status was related to cognitive distortion and antisocial behavior. These findings suggest that cognitive distortion and antisocial behavior among higher secondary adolescent in Bangladeshi population are public health concern and assumed to threats for society. Since, cognitive distortion of adolescent should be prevented by imposing interventions. In a consequence, we will able to contribute the future national developmental process by reducing crime from Bangladesh.

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Jul 2019
<![CDATA[Relational Matching-to-Sample Concept Learning in Children]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  2  

Md. Abu Bokor Siddik   Habiba Aktar Lata   and Abu Yusuf Mahmud   

The present study was formulated with an aim to examine the identical relational matching-to-sample concept learning in children, in which five students of kindergarten aged 7-8 were concurrently trained with two-choice relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks by using various shapes as stimuli under the conditions of no reinforcement for making correct responses. In particular, the RMTS tasks allowed subjects to see a sample of pair of stimuli at first, and then two comparison pair of stimuli. Subjects were trained to choose one of the two comparison pair of stimuli that matched the sample one. The number of tasks (e.g., AA vs. BB & MA in phase 1; BB vs. AA & MA in phase 2) was gradually increased. Research findings showed around or more than chance level performances made by three subjects out of five during the initial performances of the acquisition training in phase 1(e.g., AA vs. BB & MA). Subsequently, subjects were able to rapidly master the acquisition tasks with higher accuracy. After learning these RMTS tasks, they transferred the discriminative responding to two novel sets of stimuli securing higher accuracy in both baseline and test performances suggesting that they might have perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample pair of stimuli to the relationship between objects in the comparison pair of stimuli. Our findings suggest that children seemed to adopt the relational strategy to learn the RMTS tasks. These findings are considered in light of the implications for understanding the nature of the relational learning and their evolutionary origins.

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Mar 2019
<![CDATA[Correction of the Codependent Behavior: Propose a Psychological Program]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  2  

Yekaterina Raklova   

The problem of codependence, which occupies an important place in the research of individual human features, is reviewed in this article. Codependency is one of the most complex and actively investigated problems. It is explained by its exceptional role in the formation of personality individual uniqueness, its role in a person's interaction with the environment as well as its close relationship with his/her mental and physical health. In the process of theoretical and practical development of the problem, the basic principles of psycho-pedagogical correction approaches were formulated, the necessity of using a number of means, influencing on the dynamics of codependent personality states was founded. The choice of specific tools to work with codependent personality states was tested in the psychological and social centers. During the experiment the programme of codependent personality states correction has been elaborated and conducted. This programme, which considers the data, got during the diagnostic research, allowed to decrease the level of psycho-emotional tension, to develop the ability to self-regulate behavior and it contributed to enhancing the overall activity of codependent women. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time a systematic approach to the correction of codependent personality states was considered: the factors of adaptive behavior of a person, after participating in a correction program, were identified; the relationship between the system of psychological means and the adaptability of behavior of codependent women was established; a model of psychological support for codependent women was developed.

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Mar 2019
<![CDATA[Motivation to Achievement in Adolescents: Differences in Sexes between Public and Private High Schools]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  1  

Mary Carmen Moreira   Virginia Galindo   and Angélica Ojeda García   

Adolescents go through a critical period of development. Therefore, they have to face various challenges, changes and decisions. One of them, it is that they live frequently in environments with a lot of risk factors, which influence in them and generates feelings as frustration, aphaty and uninteresting for their wishing, but in the same time, a feeling of greatness with they respond their environment. The study’s aim was to know the relationship between the different risk factors and motivation to achievement by Mexican adolescents between public and private high schools. The results showed a positive and negative correlation toward more motivation increase the protective factors and less motivation of achievement in presence the risk factors. The intrinsic motivation was marked by the three types of protection factors (self-discipline, self-respect and self-acceptance) and extrinsic motivation was integrated by environment’s risk factors. Both are determinant over the motivation of achievement in this population. The risk factor unconsciousness and impulsive showed difference between public and private school. It is crucial to develop in them a project of life toward integral self-realisation.

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Jan 2019
<![CDATA[Practices and Challenges of Cooperative Learning in Selected College of Arsi University: As a Motivational Factor on Enhancing Students' Learning]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  7  Number  1  

Birhanu Moges   

The objective of this study was to examine the practices and challenges of cooperative learning as a motivational factor on enhancing students' learning in selected colleges of Arsi University. This research has mixed approach both qualitative and quantitative; while its method is descriptive and explorative in their nature. The total sample of the study was 421, 330 graduate students, 85 instructors and the 8 deans and vice deans were included as a sample through stratified random sampling technique. Instruments employed in this study included questionnaire, semi-structured interview and observation. For questionnaire a five point Likert scale was adopted. Frequencies, percentage, mean and SD was used to analyze the data. Information generated from interview and classroom observation was described qualitatively. The findings indicate that instructors and students have positive attitudes towards cooperative learning and they prefer it to lecture-style. The findings suggest that training in cooperative learning is important to implement it. Accordingly the following findings were obtained: instructors' lack of knowledge and training on cooperative learning; students' lack of interest to participate in cooperative learning and passive style of learning; lack of enough support from administrative and unavailability of instructional materials were among the challenges which hinder the implementation of cooperative learning. Consequently, instructors are practicing traditional teaching methods. Similarly, students indicated that they are not willing to participate in group discussion while the researcher observed in the actual classroom. The challenge for instructors is to develop skills to facilitate positive teamwork experience among their students who will need to interact with each others in transnational teams in the workplace of the future. It can be recommend, providing adequate administrative support, preparing supplementary materials, preparing cooperative learning training for instructors and inviting experts to share experience about cooperative learning. Cooperative learning method should be adopted by all instructors as an effective learning strategy in order to improve students' learning.

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Jan 2019
<![CDATA[Remembering False Memories: Insights from DRM Studies]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  4  

Patrycja Maciaszek   

The issue of how certain we could be about our memory and the accuracy of its content draws researchers' attention for decades. Still, as the new data appears, the question remains important, especially on fields of cognitive and social psychology. Presented research focuses on creation of laboratory- evoked false memories that demonstrate high level of certainty of "remembering" declared by participants. Thus, the main aim of presented studies was to establish whether false memories are transferred from semantic memory, where they are believed to appear into the episodic memory. It was assumed that recollecting memories, as well true as false, is connected with increasing level of activation in a very specific part of memory network within semantic memory magazine. It was crucial to (1) investigate if similar effect appears regarding to false episodic memories and (2) verify whether the laboratory-created false memories behave rather like true memories instead of random mistakes. Hypothesis were verified using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (list-of- words-related, DRM) paradigm and remember-know judgment procedure. Study conducted on 61 Jagiellonian University students shown that participants reported more often remembering both: true and false memories (contrary to unrelated mistakes). Moreover, medium level of properly recollected words (57%) was approximate to medium level of false memories (52%). Such results showed that effect of memory transfer between semantic and episodic memory magazines occurred, and that laboratory-evoked false memories engage "the feeling of remembering" events that never occurred.

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Sep 2018
<![CDATA[Color Preferences for Private and Semi-private Areas in Hotels]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  4  

Lilia R. Prado-León   Perla Liliana Zambrano-Prado   Susana Herrada-Rodríguez   and Sonia Felizardo-Gómez   

Soft ergonomics comprises emotional needs and other qualitative features which affect the relationship of the user to the product. In Interior Design, subjective aspects such as color preference can influence user experiences. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of color in the choice of the interior design on private and semi-private areas of hotel areas displayed by renders and to establish whether there is a relationship between color preference and gender. This study included 197 volunteers. The experimental stimuli (nine chromatic and three achromatic) were applied to three different hotel places; all of these stimuli were presented on a computer screen, one at a time in random order. A continuous scale ranging from 0 (null liking) to 100 (absolute liking) indicated to what degree the viewer liked the image. As a whole, for all the hotel spaces, a higher preference was found for achromatic colors, especially white (74.0); even gray (57.8) surpassed the most preferred chromatic color, which was royal blue, with a score of (56.5). Some significant sex differences were distinguished in the results. These findings emphasize the importance of gaining information about color preferences in the discipline of Interior Design with the aim to satisfy users' expectations and to improve their experience.

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Sep 2018
<![CDATA[Redefining Resilience: A Process-centered Approach for Interventions with Child Sexual Abuse Survivors]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  3  

Tanya Elizabeth Michelle Defferary   John Gregory Howcroft   and Louise Anne Stroud   

Resilience is a term that is often used in a general and decontextualized way, both in psychology and related disciplines. This becomes a problem as it can impact the effectiveness of interventions. Researchers have long argued whether resilience should be defined as an outcome or process. This article conceptualizes resilience as a process-centered construct in relation to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings were derived through the use of a convergent parallel mixed methods research study, from a South Africa sample, a country which has some of the highest rates of CSA globally. It explored the impact of resilience upon the psychosocial sequelae of CSA survivors. The findings indicate resilience should be viewed as a process rather than a fixed state, resulting in recommendations to approach the treatment of survivors of CSA. This opens the door for further research on this topic and for the improvement of intervention and treatment practices.

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Jul 2018
<![CDATA[Personality and Meaning in Life: The Mediating Role of Wellness]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  3  

Nur Demirba?-?elik   and Fidan Korkut-Owen   

Big two is based on the personality traits of Stability and Plasticity, also known as a new construct named the Big Two, which is itself based on the Big Five. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of wellness in the relationship between the Stability and Plasticity and meaning in life. The research had 273 adult participants; 189 of whom were female and 84 were male, all within the age range of 22 and 44 (x? =30.08; SD=5.39). The Big Five Inventory, The Well-Star Scale-Adult Form, Meaning in Life Questionnaire and a Brief Personal Information Form were used for data collection. Data analysis was done by structural equation modeling and bootstrap procedure. Results show that wellness fully mediated the relationship between plasticity and meaning in life.

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Jul 2018
<![CDATA[Young People Can Transform Favela into a Place Inhabited by Building of Dreams through Weaving the Imaginary]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  3  

Ligia Valadares de Almeida   and Regina Gloria Nunes Andrade   

The present article results of research performed by Cultural Center Cartola, entity that makes use of material and incorporeal conditions, as collection about the history of the samba, with prominence for the musician and composer Cartola. Owner of the same characteristics of the members from the favela Mangueira, for being from humble origin, this consecrated samba performer became a symbol of social cause. The objective of the research in the workshops literary production: to weave the imaginary were to analyze how the literary texts intervene, positively, in the trajectory of individuals who are in situation of social vulnerability. The proposal aimed at to stimulate the creation and the reading of fictional texts, making possible that the narrative was a vector of reconstruction of the individual and the collective. The research, structuralized on operative bases and action could detect possibilities where the imaginary presents itself. The interaction by means of speaking, writing and drawing stimulates the imagination and the reflection, influencing the collective and the individual on their own construction and world. The research in the CCCartola, an excluded community of Afro-Brazilian origin, shows that samba is the largest "host agent", where individuals develop potential through socio-educational activities.

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Jul 2018
<![CDATA[Introduction of Magnanimous Psychotherapy]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  3  

Huang Xuewei   

The founding of magnanimous therapy (MT) was inspired by psychological characteristics of long-term cancer survivors. Our empirical research for probing into how cancer patients can live longer with a high quality of life, and related studies, showed that being magnanimous was the important psychological characteristic of long-term cancer survivors (≥ 5 years post-diagnosis) with a good quality of life. MT is based on helping cancer patients to adjust and achieve a magnanimous mental state. The theoretical soul of this therapy is that a magnanimous state can become an individual's cognitive habit, and psychological and behavioral mode, through a series of professional interventions. The habit and the mode can also get into one's unconscious and soul, and thus will be a part of one's cognition, emotion and behavior and be a part of one's lifestyle. The characteristics of the therapy include being simple and easy to conduct, diversiform and attractive. The main forms of the MT consist of computer MT and operator MT, story MT and game MT, etc. The pilot controlled clinical trials showed improvements within the mental composite, general health, mental health and social functioning of clients after MT intervention. It can be applied to cancer patients, depressive patients and any patients with emotional problems.

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Jul 2018
<![CDATA[Adolescent Trauma and Psychosocial Wellbeing in Entebbe-Uganda]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  3  

Ankwasiize Evarist   

The general objective of the study was to explore adolescent trauma and its effects on psychosocial wellbeing of adolescents so as to initiate an adolescent trauma intervention model relevant in Uganda. The research objectives were based on nature and effects of trauma, effects of trauma on psychosocial wellbeing of adolescents and the perceived relationship between trauma and adolescents psychosocial wellness. The researcher used exploratory case study design with 86 respondents obtained by simple random and purposive sampling techniques. The likert scale standardized questionnaire "The child and adolescent trauma screen (CATS)" was administered to adolescent in relation to objective one and objective two. In order to obtain more classified information regarding the study of the objective three, the study used focus group discussion and this was carried out with the parents, teachers and counselors/ social workers to collect data. The researcher used coding sheets and descriptive analysis (bar charts, pie charts and frequency tables). The study concluded that adolescent trauma is caused by multiple factors including physical causes with more males at 66%, as compared to females 54%, sexually related causes with 7(70%) females and 3(30%) males, being touched indecently at 58.8% females and 46.1% males, and trauma related with poverty with highest source of trauma at 27% followed by fear of failure especially failure to succeed in their studies at 26%. The study further revealed that trauma among adolescent affects them emotionally, academically and somatically manifested through bad feelings about one's body with 44% males and 56% of respondents being females leading to sleep related problems manifested more in males with 67.6% and less in females with 32.4%. The study thus concludes that there is a need for multiple psychosocial interventions for adolescents in form of talk and expressive therapies. The study recommended that parents, counselors or social workers and teachers need on job training on addressing psychosocial needs of adolescents at school, health centers and in families.

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Jul 2018
<![CDATA[Socialization in Multicultural Space: Determinations and Conditions]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  2  

Martsinkovskaya T   Chumicheva I   and Khuzeeva G   

Relevance and significance of socialization in the modern changing and multicultural space is connected both with social transitivity and expansion of interpersonal and intergroup communication. Globalization and mass migrations of people spread out socialization borders and demand the positive attitude towards norms and standards of native and foreign culture. These assumptions were tested in the course of empirical research of teenager's socialization in the megalopolis (Moscow) and the capital of Karelia Petrozavodsk. Teenagers from Petrozavodsk represent ethnically homogeneous group, the teenagers living in Moscow belonged to 9 ethnic groups. The obtained data showed the general for modern generation of the Russian youth tendency of essential increase of personal identity. In Karelia this tendency connected with orientation to the outside world and "mixed" ethic identity. This phenomenology increase tolerance to uncertainty and raise socialization's potentials in the multicultural environment. The materials received in Moscow allow allocating three levels of determination in teenager's socialization. This is the space of the big city which gives many variants of socialization and can be considered as the translator of common cultural and civil values. The second determinant is development's aims which unite teenagers of different ethnic groups. The third level is the nearest environment of the teenager. The received materials show that for socialization in multicultural environment is extremely important to give teenagers various sociocultural and ethnic patterns of socialization, which give the chance of self-realization in many spheres to teenagers of different ethnic groups.

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May 2018
<![CDATA[Homicide in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: A Review of the Literature]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  2  

Charlotte Cliffe   

Access to better care and advances in obstetric medicine have led to a global reduction in maternal mortality rate. Although obstetric-related causes of death have decreased, the numbers of deaths relating to injuries have remained static. Suicide has been recognised as a significant cause of overall perinatal mortality. However there has been less consideration of the role of maternal homicide as a contributor to pregnancy-associated mortality. This review reports on international literature on maternal homicide. Rates were reported from 0.97 to 10.6 per 100 000 live births. Pregnancy-associated homicide rates were higher in the United States compared with other countries; it is unclear whether this is due to better case identification or represents an actual difference in risk. Women murdered in the perinatal period constituted a highly vulnerable group: they were younger, more likely to be from minority ethnic groups and unmarried. Domestic violence was a significant risk factor for attempted and completed homicide. This review demonstrates pregnancy–associated homicide is an important contributor to maternal mortality with rates comparable to suicide. Central to any strategy will be the identification of those at risk and these findings add to the importance of screening for current and previous domestic violence.

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May 2018
<![CDATA[The Relationships among School Counselors' Vocational Satisfactions, Their School Counseling Self-efficacy Expectations and Delivery System Components]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  2  

Aliye I??k Tokmak   and Rag?p ?zyürek   

In this study, the relationships between school counselors' vocational satisfactions, their school counseling self-efficacy expectations and delivery system components were examined. The research participants of this study were two different samples of counselors who work one of the cities in the west of Turkey. The number of participants in each sample is 150. According to findings, positive correlations were obtained between counselors' vocational satisfactions and their school counseling self-efficacy expectations, and time spent conducting school counseling tasks with students / consultants in face-to-face interaction and negative correlations were found with conducting non-counseling duties. The findings also showed that there may be a positive relationship between vocational satisfactions and self-efficacy expectations and the number of clients participating in individual counseling sessions, the number of individual counseling sessions, the number of large group counseling sessions, the number of periodical individual planning interviewing and a negative relationship the number of small group guidance sessions and the number of conferences the counselors gave to the students. In the discussion section, the similarities between these findings and the findings in the previous studies were discussed and some suggestions were given to the researchers.

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May 2018
<![CDATA[A Study of Gender Differences of Attitudes toward Date Rape among Chinese University Students]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  1  

Peitzu Lee   He Kaiwen   and Deng Jiayi   

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes towards date rape between genders in Mainland Chinese university students, given the fact that there is little research about attitudes toward date rape, which is defined as the occurring of forcible intercourse between two parties in romantic or potentially sexual relationship, among Chinese people. 104 male and 117 female university students, aged from 17 to 27 were asked to complete the Attitudes towards Forcible Date Rape (FDR) Scale online. The findings showed that female students rejected date rape-tolerant attitudes more than their male counterparts. Also, female students expressed more disagreement with the belief that forcible intercourse on a date is acceptable under certain conditions, compared to the male students. The current findings suggest that there is indeed a need for education concerning consent versus rape in mainland China.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[What Impact does an Adult Substance User Have on Mothers, and How Do They Make Sense of Their Experience?]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  1  

Ingela Clare Jackson   

Previous research has focused on the impact of substance use on the whole family system, and whether certain family dynamics are common in families with substance use in them. This research, conducted in the UK, explores the specific experience of being a mother of a substance user and their phenomenological experience from the perspective of mothering metanarratives in western cultures today. The findings were complex due to the amount of data, but the theme of loss ran through all of the impacts, as well as being a major part of how the participants made sense of their experience. Loss was therefore the focus for studying the impact on the participants. The findings showed the complexity of mothering for this group of women and how their experience is largely misunderstood and unsupported in our society, where mother blaming is culturally acceptable.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Attitudes towards People with Mental Illness among Professionals Working in a Psychiatric Hospital in Rwanda]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  1  

Alfred Ngirababyeyi   Charles Mudenge   and Eric Constant   

Aims: This quantitative study investigated the attitudes toward people with mental illness among professionals working in Ndera neuropsychiatric hospital in Rwanda. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in attitudes between direct care providers and supportive professionals towards the people with mental illness. Methods: The Community Attitudes towards Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale (Dear & Taylor, 1982) was used. A total of 72 members of the staff, including 55 directly involved staff members and 17 support staff members, participated in the survey. Results: The mean score is 3.98 for authoritarianism, 3.75 for social restrictiveness, 3.88 for benevolence, and 3.87 for community mental health ideology attitudes subscales. There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups in their overall scale scores. However, directly involved staff members had a greater mean score on many individual items (P≥0.05). Demographic variables did not account for the variance within the two groups (P≥0.05). 87.27% of our respondents think that staff members, patients and family members can be involved in the decision making process and 70.59% appreciate that it is good to involve staff, patients and family relatives in this process. Negative attitudes towards people with mental illness admitted to Ndera neuropsychiatric hospital are also present, even though the majority of our respondents have favorable attitudes towards the people with mental illness. There is the need to explore the influence of staff attitudes on the delivery of high quality healthcare.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[The Effect of Social Networking on the Divorce Process]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  6  Number  1  

Betül Ayd?n   Serkan Volkan Sar?   and Mustafa ?ahin   

This study aims to examine the opinions of people who have divorced because of their spouses' relationships on social network, and who stated that they were deceived by their spouses on internet. In the study, case study method was used since the study deals with "the people who have divorced for their spouses deceived them on the internet". The study was carried out with ten participants (five of them are male and five of them are female) living in Trabzon, Turkey and divorced in 2013 for they were deceived by their spouses in social networking websites. Data were collected by recording of the interviews carried out with semi-structured interview protocol. Data gathered by the recordings device of the interview protocols were written down. In the process of data analysis, "constant comparative analysis" was employed. Findings of the study were collected into two main categories. The first was about the types of the participants' spouses' using social networks and the second about the effects of the messages and sharings of the spouses in social networks on familial relations. The findings of the study showed that the ways spouses used social networks affected the marriage negatively. According to another finding of the study, it can be said that from the aspects of emotional, behavioural, social and psychological aspects, use of the social networks by the divorcees' spouses affected the inter-family relationships. Certain suggestions were made based on these findings.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Our Unconscious Soul: A Re-look at Aristotle Descartes & the Upanishads]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  

Bradley Y. Bartholomew   

This paper presents an original interpretation of the Upanishads that the inner self is located in the embryo brain region of the brain. This is the part of the brain already present in the embryo and consists of the brainstem, hypothalamus, thalamus, and midbrain. It is also the part of the brain that operates during dreaming and deep sleep and causes the transition from sleeping to waking states and the Upanishads state unequivocally that the self is responsible for these mental states. With the self-located in the embryo brain region, an entirely new interpretation of Aristotle's De Anima is presented which parallels the Upanishads in every respect; the inner self and Aristotle's 'soul' have identical functions and attributes. An Aristotelian First Principle is presented: Biology is the source of Consciousness; DNA is the source of Biology; Ergo DNA is the source of Consciousness. It has recently been discovered that our long-term memories are stored in the putamen during deep sleep. The putamen is located in the embryo brain region along with the pineal gland that secretes melatonin during deep sleep. Descartes famously located the soul in the pineal gland, and there is a high probability that the secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland during deep sleep is an unconscious operation of our soul involved in storing our long-term memories in the embryo brain region.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[The Perceptions and Attitudes of Georgian Migrants in Portugal]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  

Ekaterine Pirtskhalava   

This study describes the processes of adaptation of Georgian migrants in Western Europe. Massive migration from Georgia started after the collapse of the Soviet Union when some of the former Soviet republics became independent and began their journey to the democratic society. The difficulties led to the highest levels of out-migration from Georgia. Later an economic crisis was exacerbated by political turmoil and a violent conflict with Russia. A volatile political situation and a worsening socioeconomic picture incited the continuation of the migration processes from Georgia. Motivation and processes of migration differ among individuals and family migrants. People's decision to migrate is often motivated by the complex of interrelated factors: social, institutional, political, health and even environmental. The study describes the process of Georgian migrants' adaptation and integration into the host societies of Portugal and France after their resettlement. This work focuses on the dynamics of adaptation process in the new socio-cultural spaces based on subjective perceptions of the Georgian migrants, on the attitudes toward the host society and the type of interactions and social networks which Georgian migrants make use of in the country of destination. It assesses how they find housing and jobs and their experiences with adapting to a new society. Based on the in-depth interviews with the migrants living in Portugal and France, the study shows typical variations of cultural identity - typology of commonly used identity tactics based on the analysis of content characteristics.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Sociometric Mapping for Predictive Performance Analysis: The Measurement of Attitudes of Social Acceptance or Rejection through Expressed Preferences among Members of a Social Grouping]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  

John Hathaway   

The level of group acceptance or rejection through Sociometric preferences was measured and correlated to the Summative performance of a small class of post graduate students studying Human Resource Management. Acceptance above the average score for the social atom indicated a better performing student, whereas students with low acceptance scores were struggled to achieve. No student achieving above average Sociometric preference scores failed, while 30% struggled to achieve pass marks. Additional contributing factors such as ethnicity illustrated areas for further investigation within the research. The central thesis was confirmed and Sociometric performance scores offer scope for the development of praxis into predictive performance analysis.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Executive Laterality: Evidence from Hemisometry, Hemisity, and MRI]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  

Bruce E.   and Morton Stein Rafto   

The bilateral human brain includes structures producing a preconscious executive element, the source of the final decision to act. This executive element appears to be located unilaterally in the brain on the larger side of the anterior cingulate cortex. In a given individual, its side of residence is genetically determined in idiosyncratic manner by a phenomenon called hemisity. Using flash hemisometers, a single 0.5ms flash was directed to both cerebral hemispheres of the subject simultaneously. This was done either by stimulating nasal retinal surfaces or temporal retinal surfaces of the subject's eyes. Of 91 subjects, 87 (96%) reported seeing two flashes; the first appearing on one idiosyncratic side, closely followed by another on the same side. Yet, only single flashes were reported when nasal and temporal retinae were simultaneously stimulated. This non-intuitive two flash result would occur if on one side of the brain the flash went directly to a unilateral executive observer to be seen first. Because the flash going to the other, non-executive side of the brain would not be perceived there, it would have to cross the corpus callosum to reach the executive observer as a delayed second flash. Here, the individual brain side of the executive observer determined by this method was highly correlated with each subject's larger anterior cingulate and MRI-calibrated hemisity. These results provide confirmatory evidence for the existence of executive laterality.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Comparing the English Video Lineup with the 48-Person Lineup]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  

Avraham Levi   

Levi has been experimenting with large lineups, in particular a 48-person lineup. After showing experimental participants a 2 minute video more than an hour before, participants were shown 4 screens of 12 lineup members. They could view the screens as often as they liked before reaching a decision. This study compared the 48-person lineup with the British lineup. Contrary to prediction, the British lineup did not outperform the 48-person one in identifications of the target. As there was also no difference in mistaken choices in target-absent lineups, as expected the 48-person lineup outperformed the British lineup, since the likelihood that the innocent suspect would be the person chosen is 1/10 in the ten-person British lineup, while only 1/48 in the 48-person lineup.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Group Counseling Using Cognitive and Behavior Therapy Intervention to Reduce Stress among Nurses]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  

Wan Anor Wan Sulaiman   Mohd Dahlan HA Malek   Wan Nor Fatini   and Adi Fahrudin   

This study was conducted as to explore the effectiveness of the treatment modules in group counselling between the Cognitive Therapy Group Counselling and Behavior Therapy Group Counselling in reducing stress level among nurses in Women and Children Hospital in Kota Kinabalu. There are two objectives that guided this mixed methods study. Firstly, this study was to test the effectiveness of the Cognitive Therapy Group Counselling (CTGC) by looking at the different between pre-test and post-test results on the level of stress among nurses who have followed the CTGC with nurses who did not follow the CTGC (control group). Secondly, this study was to test the effectiveness of the Behavior Therapy Group Counselling (BTGC) by looking at the different between pre-test and post-test results on the level of stress among nurses who have followed the BTGC with nurses who did not follow the BTGC (control group). The results showed that there was a significance difference on the level of stress between nurses who joined either GCCT and GCBT with those nurses who did not join the treatment (Control group). In fact, nurses who have joined either treatment have shown some decrease in their stress level. However, when comparing between the two (CTGC and BTGC), BTGC showed better results in reducing stress level among nurses in the hospital. Therefore, both CTGC and BTGC are suitable to reduce stress among nurses in the hospital.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[Three-factor Predictors of Marital Adjustment among Couples in Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  

Onabamiro, Adegbenga Ade   Owoyele, Jimoh Wale   and Elijah, Ayodele Oiukunle   

The importance of couples understanding their personality characteristic is germane to marital bliss and adjustment. This study examined self-esteem, emotional intelligence and coping skills as predictors of marital adjustment among couples in Abeokuta metropolis. This study adopted a non-experimental ex-post facto research. It is also correlative in nature. The target population for the study comprised all the married persons in Anglican Communion Churches in Abeokuta South and North Local Government Areas in Ogun State, Nigeria. Using simple, random sampling technique a total of fifteen married persons were selected from each of the churches, making a total of three hundred and thirty, married persons (330) from Abeokuta North and South Local Government Areas, Ogun State. The study used four instruments Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), Self-Esteem Scale Questionnaire (SESQ), Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ), and Marital Adjustment Questionnaire (MAQ) to generate data for the study. Frequency counts and percentage were used for presenting the data obtained from the questionnaire. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis were used for testing the null hypotheses. The result shows that there is no significant relationship between coping style and marital adjustment, that there is no significant relationship between self-esteem, emotional intelligence, and marital adjustment. The study recommended among others that couples should endeavor to accentuate attitude of co-operative understanding, valuing partnership, demonstrating trust, general good will towards one another and positive values in their marriage while family counselors should organize workshops, seminars and conferences whereby couples would be sensitized on causes of marital adjustment and resolution strategies for resolving marital mal-adjustment.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[Do Early Intelligent Scores Predict Long-term Achievement: A Quadrennial Longitudinal Study]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  

Tatl? E.C.   and Ergin D.A.   

The Purpose of the Study: In this study, establishing a linear regression model that explain academic achievement in terms of assessing academic achievement and intelligence is aimed. Method: In this study, a longitudinal pattern is designed by using 85 students' scores of Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) (evaluated in 5th grade), Primary Mental Abilities Ages (PMAA) (evaluated in 7th grade) and Transition From Basic To Secondary Education (TEOG) (evaluated in 8th grade). Findings and Conclusion: Findings show that there is positively meaningful relation between PMAA and TEOG scores. In established regression model, the scores of PMAA is seemed to explain the 14% of the variance. This finding is thought to prove that TEOG is based on the skill of reading comprehension rather than reasoning. For further studies, it is suggested to consider the predictors of personal variables in addition to academic achievement and intelligence scores.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[Applications of the Axiomatic Method in Social Science: The Declaration of Independence, Einstein and Ethics, and Balance and Dissonance Attitude Theories]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  

Sheldon G. Levy   

The value of the axiomatic method in conjunction with Muncaster's PropCalc Workplace to analyze and increase the precision of social science theory is illustrated through applications that include political philosophy, ethical reasoning, and theories of attitude change. All of the examples were originally expressed through verbal statements. A formal logical analysis is applied to the US Declaration of Independence which provides a set of propositions upon which governments are based, Einstein's essay on the laws of science and the laws of ethics, and basic concepts of balance and dissonance theories of attitude change. In each case, symbolic representations of the verbal language are then subjected to analysis for consistency and redundancy among the propositions and sample conclusions from each model are presented. The Muncaster's PropCalc is a valuable aid in identifying the integrity and consequences of the models. The discussion includes an examination of the relationship between the models and their correspondence with reality.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[The Anorectic Girl and Her Father - The Interpersonal and Intrapsychic Meaning to the Girl]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Elisabeth Bratt Neuberg   and Gerhard Andersson   

Background: Little is known about the role of the fathers of anorectic women. The aim of this study was to investigate the attachment state of mind in anorectic women and their fathers. In addition, two other groups of young women and their fathers were included. Methods: In total there were three groups consisting of women between 18-30 years with anorexia nervosa (AG), drug-dependency problems (DG) and students (SG) without significant problems. We also included the parents of all three groups. The diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and drug-dependency were made according to DSM-IV [1] and ICD-10 [2]. Several methods were used in the study. [3, 4] The Adult Attachment Interview [5] was the focus of this report. Results: The analyses showed that the Anorectic women (AG) had more of a dismissing attachment state of mind, than those who were categorized as enmeshed or secure/autonomous. The attachment of the fathers showed more of a dismissing state of mind than of those categorized as with secure or enmeshed attachment. The subcategories showed that both among the anorectic women and the fathers the dismissing attachment state of mind with restriction of feelings was most represented. The dependent women (DG) had more of an unresolved/enmeshed attachment state of mind than those who were categorized as dismissing or secure/autonomous. The attachment of the fathers showed more of an unresolved/secure attachment state of mind than of those categorized as dismissing or enmeshed. The subcategories showed that enmeshed attachment state of mind of the dependent girls differed from fathers with the unresolved/secure attachment state of mind. Conclusion: This study illustrates the similarities and the differences of attachment styles among anorectic women and their fathers in comparison to the dependent women and their fathers. The insecure attachment is dominant in the two groups but differ in its expressions. The number of participants in the study was low and larger studies are needed to clarify the interpersonal and intra-psychic meaning to the anorectic woman.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[The Effectiveness of Emotion-focused Cognitive Therapy in Decreasing Depression due to Marital Relationship Problems]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi   and Seyed Ali Kimiaei   

Marital distress and marital relationship problems are effective in generation and acceleration of depression. Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of emotion-focused cognitive therapy in decreasing depression caused due to marital relationship problems. The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. The research population consisted of all couples referred to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Clinic of Psychology. 10 couples with marital problems were selected by convenience sampling, and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received emotion-focused cognitive therapy while the control group received no treatment. The research measurement instruments consisted of BDI-II and CPQ. ANCOVA models were used to test the study hypothesis. The results showed that EFCT had been effective in decreasing depression due to marital relationship problems (P < 0.001). The results of our study not only demonstrated that the importance of cognition and emotion in marital relationship but also product useful information about effectiveness of EFCT on depression caused due to marital relationship problems for researchers, counselors and psychotherapists.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Role of Stress Management on the Relationship between Information Overload Syndrome and Performance of Universiti Utara Malaysia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Saralah Devi Mariamdaran   and Arsaythamby A/L Veloo   

Research has identified the moderating role of stress management on the relationship between information overload syndrome and performance (IOS&P) of university students. Observation conducted due to Information Technologies usages. Research has become relatively easy as all the materials are readily available, but at the same time too much information acts as a noise and students feel problematic in choosing the right information which causes stress and affects students' performance. The IOS&P framework has been tested with the help of primary data collected from the students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. The findings of the study revealed that information overload syndrome has a negative impact over the performance of students. Furthermore, the addition of moderating variable i.e. stress management converts the negative impact into positive impact and has increased the value of explained variation. Thus, the overall framework has been approved and the study highlighted that there is a significant moderating role of stress management over the relationship between information overload syndrome and students performance.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Detecting Differences between Clinical Presentations in ADHD through the Cognitive Profile Obtained from WISC-IV]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Ignasi Navarro Soria   Javier Fenollar Cortés   Rocio Lavigne Cerván   and Rocio Juarez Ruiz de Mier   

Objective: The current study explores whether WISC-IV cognitive profiles could allow to differentiate between presentations of ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of 216 subjects aged between 6 and 16 years and distributed into 2 subgroups (ADHD inattentive type group aged M = 8.5, SD = 2.4; and ADHD combined group M = 10.1, SD = 2.6) was recruited for the study. Results: Processing Speed Index mean score was significantly higher (F (1,214) = 14.7, p< .001, d = 0.52) in ADHD-Inattentive group (M = 90.7; SD = 12.1) than ADHD-Combined group (M = 97.7; SD = 14.7). Furthermore, PSI was negatively associated with "Inattention" dimension (β = -.21, p< .001 family and β = -.19, p< .001 teachers) while it was positively associated with "Hyperactivity/Impulsivity" dimension (β = .27, p< .001 family and β = .33, p< .001 teachers). Conclusions: The higher inattentiveness the lower PSI mean score, while a higher hyperactivity/impulsivity mean score would reduce the impact caused for inattentiveness. Thus, ADHD-I profile would tend to show a significant lower PSI mean score than ADHD-C.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Color Preference in Luxury Electrical Appliances]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Ibarra Gutiérrez, Laura Edith   Rosales Cinco, Rosa Amelia   and Prado León, Lilia Roselia   

Objects are signs which transmit social, political, religious, economic or cultural messages, among others. The meanings of these messages are directed from the emitting object to the recipient, the person who uses or owns the item. The aim of this research is to determine which colors the population of Guadalajara, Mexico relates to luxury in the case of electrical appliances. The study was based on a Product Personality Profiling (PPP) evaluation of six appliances. The features of those products represent a social-economic level which is linked to the consumer of luxury objects. The target of the survey was to determine the colors that represent the luxurious electronic appliance market, which could be linked to a luxury car. The colors in the survey (all metallic versions) were sand, silver, black, blue, grey, white, green and "other." Participants chose two colors for the luxury objects. Silver was chosen for the first three and metallic black for the last three. The results show that the colors silver and black are related to luxury and that the remaining colors are less likely to be related to luxury appliances.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Effectiveness of a Multimodal Intervention for Group Counseling with Children of Divorce in Iran]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  

Mehrdad Hajihasani   

Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for children. The purpose of this article is to describe interventions for children from divorced family. Literature review and references look at divorce groups from multiple perspectives so as to include as many diverse issues as possible. Group counseling helps students understand the wide variety of different issues that arise in the context of groups, helps with universality, and brings support and healing to the very essence of their life. The overall purpose, to empower students to make healthy adjustments in their lives given the immense life changes, is well served by group counseling. Measurable goals and evaluation methods insure a high degree of rigor in the process. Finally, 9 sessions are spelled out in detail including clear objectives, necessary materials and specific strategies so as to insure success in realizing the purpose of the group. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that the interventionist model developed by the researcher was effective in improving psychological adjustment (P<0/01). Children of divorce participating sessions succeeded to overcome the negative effects of parental divorce through learning new skills. It is recommended that parents, school counselors and educational authorities benefit the study findings in order to help increase the adjustment in children of divorce.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[The Dual Quadbrain Model and Modular Consciousness]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Bruce Eldine Morton   

A multiple module model of human consciousness is needed because several powerful subconscious elements have been found which strongly influence behavior. Recognition of the existence of brain-mind modules is as old as written history. Recently, McLean's evolutionary Triune Brain model, has been expanded to Morton's Dual Quadbrain Model of modular consciousness. The bilaterality of the cerebrum is necessary because the left hemisphere is specialized in top-down logic, which cannot occur in the same space as the right hemisphere's bottom-up orientation. These differences have led to the concept of hemisity, which is based upon which side of the anterior cingulate, part of the executive ego, was larger, thus determining the right or left brain-orientation of the individual. The cerebellum which is also bilateral, houses Freud's Superego with its life and social orientation, so often emulated in religion. It also houses the Thanatos, Reactive Mind, Pain Body, and mutated developmental arrest repair program (xDARP), source of conflict between mates leading to more than 50% to divorce in the US. Lastly, the brain core is also bilateral with Freud's ferocious wolf-Id on one side and the loyal and supportive dog-Id on the other. These produce the hostile or friendly ultimate brain output. With these seven brain modules active, we are a formidable society of seven.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Fetal Dreams and the Source of Desire]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Bradley Y. Bartholomew   

This paper presents the theory of French neurophysiologist Michel Jouvet that REM dreaming sleep acts as a genetic programming mechanism for the brain in utero. In addition the French neurobiologist Jean-Didier Vincent in his book Biology of Passions provides a great deal of research material concerning the development of the fetus as a desiring subject. This material is presented in support of the general theory of desire principally developed by French psychoanalysts Fran?oise Dolto and Jacques Lacan. It is shown that at the time of birth the fetus has already developed a desiring attachment to the conditions in the womb and that the act of being born does represent a rupture to its established desiring patterns thus reinforcing and explaining all the theory that has emerged concerning the trauma of birth.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Effects of Distance between Home Plate and the Backstop on Self-confidence of Intercollegiate Baseball Players]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Darrin Sorrells   and Kyle Kempf   

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the distance between home plate and the backstop may impact the levels of self-confidence of intercollegiate baseball pitchers when throwing their pitches. The null hypothesis (H0) is that there is no difference in baseball pitchers' levels of self-confidence when the distance between home plate to the backstop is greater than 25 feet. The research hypothesis (H1) is that there is a statistically significant difference in baseball pitchers' levels of self-confidence when the distance between home plate to the backstop is greater than 25 feet. The participants in the study were eleven (N=11) baseball pitchers who were members of the same intercollegiate baseball team in the United States. The research team concludes that there was a slight decrease in self-confidence overall when the backstop was more than 25 feet away from home plate, but the decline in the level of self-confidence for the participants seemed to be minor. The decline in self-confidence with a distance of greater than 25 feet was statistically significant for the best pitch but not statistically significant for the second best pitch.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Being Deaf in Mainstream Education in the United Kingdom: Some Implications for their Health]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Mike Berry   

This paper explores the issue of deaf children in mainstream education and the implications this has for their health. Currently more than 48,000 children in the UK are classified as deaf with some 85% taught in mainstream schools although they are significantly educationally underachieving. The vulnerability of deaf children and some of the difficulties they face are highlighted. An outline is provided of the nature of deafness and the Deaf Community, together with a description of cochlear implants and of British Sign Language. Some of the issues relating to the need for assessment, treatment and support for deaf children are discussed, including increased risk of sexual and physical abuse. Possible professional roles for psychologists are identified.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Counter Productive Work Behavior, Health and Safety Management System in the Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Md. Shahinuzzaman   Imranul Hoque   and Asoke Kumar Saha   

The present study examined the relationship between counter productivity work behavior, and health & safety management systems of readymade garments employee of Bangladesh. The sample consisted of 384 participants over the age of 22 years old, 192 of whom were males and 192 were females. They were selected from different readymade garments industries of Dhaka City by using two stage cluster sampling technique. The instruments used in this study were demographic and personal questionnaire, Adapted Occupational Health and Safety Management System [6] and Bangla version of Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C) [7]. Mean, Standard deviation, correlation and stepwise multiple regressions were performed. Results indicated that emergency response (β=.-312, p<.005), procurement and contracting (β=.071, p<.0005) and OHS policy (β=-.995, p<.0005) worker participation (β=-.448, p<.0005), benchmarking (β=.166 p<.002) and monitoring and review (β=-.132, p<.014) were significant predictors of counterproductive work behavior. The results show that emergency response had the strongest contribution to the variance of counterproductive work behavior. It contributes 67% of the variance in counterproductive work behavior. The predicting six variables combined contribute 84.6% of the total variance of counterproductive work behavior. The results suggest that less emergency response, procurement and contracting, OHS policy, worker participation, benchmarking and monitoring and review as the key contributors to produce counterproductive work behavior among readymade garments employees in the context of Bangladesh.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[The Epidemiology of Indonesian Children and Adolescent School-based Mental Health: Validation of School-based Mental Health Information System]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Amitya Kumara   Supra Wimbarti   Yuli Fajar Susetyo   and Ammik Kisriyani   

Every year, 20% of teenagers at school suffer from common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression (WHO, 2011). Indonesian Health Ministry reported that the prevalence of emotional disturbance of students at age 15 year and above is about 6% (Riset Kesehatan Dasar, 2013). This fact above reaffirms the importance of school-based mental health as a strategic program to elevate adolescent well-being. This study specifically aims to validate mental health screening and diagnostic instrument to collect more accurate and comprehensive data about children and adolescents' mental health state and manage it using Integrated Mental Health Information System (Sistem Informasi Kesehatan Mental/SIKM). The participants in this study were 308 students consisted of elementary school, middle school, high school students, and 28 teachers in Yogyakarta. Data collection was conducted through online survey using mental health scale and knowledge questionnaire. Additional data was collected through interview and focus group discussion. The data shows that students' mental health state in Yogyakarta belonged to moderate category (81%) and high (19%). Focus group discussions revealed no system and policies have established to support students' mental health at schools. Generally, according to assessment done by the teachers, the level of students' well-being was described as such: 10.71% belonged to high category, 75% moderate, and 14.28% low. These findings provide early data to determine appropriate intervention programs in the future.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Relationship between Trait Mindfulness and False Memory: A Bilingual Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Li-Hao Yeh   and Angela Yi-Chun Lu   

Mindfulness-based interventions are known to increase false memory. However, high trait mindfulness is associated with an external encoding style and field independence, which in turn are associated with low false memory. The present study used a bilingual context to disentangle these contrasting findings. Sixty Chinese-English bilinguals completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false recognition task and were evaluated using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results showed negative and positive correlations between trait mindfulness and false recognition in Chinese-Chinese and Chinese-English conditions, respectively. The polar directions of the observed correlations suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with direct and analytical perception of objects and with cognitive flexibility in activating semantic information. The former improves source monitoring, whereas the latter increases the likelihood of generating false memories in the DRM paradigm.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[Mindfulness and Divergent Thinking: The Value of Heart Rate Variability as an Objective Manipulation Check]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  

Julia Keller   Eric Ruthruff   and Patrick Keller   

Mindfulness (MF) is a form of mental training that has been linked with more creative problem-solving. Most MF studies recruit participants interested in meditation, and thus are biased towards positive effects. Participants in this study (n = 73) therefore signed up for "mental training," not "mindfulness meditation"; the vast majority (54) had little to no prior meditation experience. This is also the first such experiment to use an objective measure of MF (coherence, a physiological correlate of MF that can be indexed by heart rate variability or HRV) as a manipulation check. Participants were randomly assigned to either MF training or a control condition (a memory exercise), and completed a test of divergent thinking (Unusual Uses Task) before and after mental training. Coherence was significantly higher in the MF group and heart rate was significantly lower in the MF group.

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Jun 2017
<![CDATA[For Value or for Worth? Part 1: Speaking Syllogistic Attractors of Appropriations in a Thought-Action-Mood-Space]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  

Gottfried Reinhold Sebastian Treviranus   

Epistemiology requires trans-disciplinary logics for convergence. As a fundamental of the brain, this essay's hypotheses revisit the Goethean alternation between "Newtonian" symbolic frontal 4-dimensional (Halford) processing ("4D-Thought"), and parietal intellectual intuition ("5D+-Action") interpreting high-dimensional articulated motor-chains (Rizzolatti). SuchS a classical temperamental and anxio-affective triad of dimensions ("Thought", "Action", "Mood") constitutes the "dyn4-TAM-cube"-model, reflecting segregated cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. "dyn4-TAM-cube" harbors cycling "Appropriation Waves" transiting from private "4DThought" to public "5+Action" and back. At "Intention" to act predictive Pavlovian cues, possibly tempting by discounted effort, incentivate, and at "Perception" Skinnerian learning relates "worth"-related outcome to effortful appropriations (see part2). Sorrentino's prime motivating "orientation" when facing the unexplained unknown dictates this balance. Thereby uncertainty- versus certainty-oriented actors ("UOs" vs. "COs") differ inversely and interactively in "Mood": whilst reducing future effortful "known unknowns" by models or by doing. Rats show a arguably homologous sign- versus goal-tracking dimension, as controlled by the thalamic paraventricular nuclei, where mast cells might mediate the reversal in orientation observed in depression. Natural language terms denoting the 8 corners and 56 intercalated processes link "dyn4-TAM-cube" to psychotherapy and to thalamic (neuro-)linguistics, as "dyn4-TAM-cube" via syllogisms of a doubled Square of Oppositions maps language to logical terms, which speak through the former.

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Apr 2017
<![CDATA[An Axiomatic Approach to Human Behavior]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  

Sheldon Grant Levy   

Since Euclid's development, the axiomatic method ha44s appealed to a limited number of non-mathematicians.. These include Newton's laws of motion, Spinoza's Ethics, and the political philosophy represented in the United States Declaration of Independence. In psychology, the notable efforts have been those of Hull and more recently of Smedslund. However, none of these examples have stated the premises in symbolic logic notation. An illustrative set of postulates for human behavior is present in which only the relationships---"not", "and", "or" and "implies"--- are employed. These propositions include basic concepts such as anxiety, aggression, and identification and fundamental empirical results, for example, the basic law of effect of Thorndike. The model then capitalizes on Muncaster's PropCalc which provides a computer analysis of a set of propositions expressed in symbolic notation for their consistency and redundancy. The procedure also provides a basic set of deductions implied by the propositions. Examples of conclusions derived from the model are presented and limitations of the prototypical model are discussed. The focus of the paper is to illustrating the utility of the axiomatic approach for theory development in psychology.

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Apr 2017
<![CDATA[Spiritus contra Spiritum: Including Spirituality in Addiction Treatments for Recovery, a Systematic Review]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  

Santiago De Ossorno Garcia   Javier Martin Babarro   and Ma de la Paz Toldos Romero   

Spirituality had been acknowledged as a key construct to observe in the treatment and recovery from addictions. Due to the individualistic nature of the construct and overlap with religion, it is still not clear how spirituality influence treatment and recovery of individuals. Different treatments and approaches like AA philosophy or spiritual practices embrace the whole construct to obtain better outcomes in recovery for addictions. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of this construct and its relationship with recovery. A search strategy was followed to retrieve 457 scientific papers related with the matter of study. A total of 14 studies were selected and assessed for quality. Experimental and observational studies were categorised by design, and reviewed through narrative synthesis. Results showed that due to the lack of experimental research, poor quality and diverse conceptions of the construct, spiritual treatments are not more effective than other treatments whereas high levels of spirituality and spiritual practices tend to reduce the substance use outcomes and improve in other areas of recovery. From the findings reviewed which need to be considered with caution, it was concluded that implementing this construct within the therapy or approach may improve, in many cases, to achieve a successful recovery. More research is needed to determine if spiritual-related treatments have better outcomes, and some recommendations were addressed for future research, in addition to an encouragement for the inclusion of spirituality with its diversity into different domains of clinical practice.

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Apr 2017
<![CDATA[For Value or for Worth? Part 2: A Neuroeconomical Thought-Action-Mood-Space Modulated by (Un-)Certainty as Sign- or Goal-tracking]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  

Gottfried Reinhold Sebastian Treviranus   

Epistemiology requires trans-disciplinary logics for convergence. Here a logico-geometrically expanded cyclical version of the classical French temperamental and anxio-affective thought-action-mood-model, 'dyn4-TAM-cube', harboring Appropriation Waves (AWs), encounters an effort-related node of present neuro-economical debates: the cyclical relation between 'value' and 'worth'. Accordingly, as a fundamental of the brain, this essay's second part continues to explore the alternation between symbolic frontal 4-dimensional (Halford) processing ('4D-Thought'), and high-dimensional parietal (Rizzolatti) intel- lectual intuition ('5D+-Action'), as balanced according to Richard Sorrentino's prime motivator trait (Un-)Certainty Orientation ('UO-versus-CO') interacting with 'Mood'. The two mentally processed transitions between these low-and high-dimensional domains, '4D-T~' and '5D+-A~', are complexity-reductive Perception P{} and -expan- sionist Intention (I{}), from which two kinds of learning feed into '4D-T~' for decision. Specifically in early AW the not just predictive, but incentive among Pavlovian cues putatively promises discounts in effort which foster intentions for worth-appropriative moves: I{}. As 'UO-versus-CO' to date seems homologous to the more sign- or more goal-tracking dimension ('ST-versus-GT') in rats. Since ST is controlled by the thalamic paraventricular nuclei and GT e.g. by the hippocampus, putative intruding mast cells might cause the depressive reversals in orientation, establishing mast cells as bio-economical agents.

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Apr 2017
<![CDATA[Perceptions of Teachers on Psychosocial Life Skills in the Secondary School SiSwati Curriculum]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  

Oloyede, O. I.   and Sihlongonyane, T   

The study investigated the perceptions of teachers on psycho - social life skills in the secondary school siSwati curriculum. The study set out to achieve three objectives and answer three research questions which were meant to establish the teachers' level of perception of life skills. A mixed method design which combined qualitative and quantitative research was used. Questionnaire and semi structured discursively oriented interviews were used to collect data. A simple random sampling procedure was employed to get twenty siSwati teachers from four schools in the Shiselweni region in Swaziland to respond to questionnaires. The follow up semi structured discursively oriented interviews were used to collect data from twelve teachers. The study established that most teachers were aware of life skills found in the siSwati curriculum but the level of perception was low. The research findings indicated that siSwati teachers were less involved in the promotion of life skills mostly because of lack of knowledge on how to integrate life skills in the siSwati lessons. Conclusions drawn from findings were that lack of time, life skills materials, and teacher training on life skills teaching were the challenges that hinders life skills teaching. Based on the findings it was recommended that in-service workshops for the siSwati teachers on the teaching of life skills be organised, teaching materials especially teacher's guide be provided, and time should be allocated on the schools time table for life skills.

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Apr 2017
<![CDATA[A Review of Psi Activity in the DNA]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  

Bradley Y. Bartholomew   

This paper presents a general summary of psi experiments conducted with the DNA in the latter decades of the 20th Century particularly at the HeartMath Institute (HMI) in Boulder Creek, CA, by Dr. Glen Rein, relating to the ability of "healers" to affect the conformation of the DNA molecule simply by concentrating their mental and emotional powers of the brain and heart. In particular it was found that the intentional states of healers could change the molecular structure of water which in turn could alter the conformation of the DNA. Further to these findings about the relationship between water and DNA, this paper discusses a journal article by a team led by 2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine recipient Dr. Luc Montagnier, which describes an electromagnetic field in the DNA that is capable of being projected into water and which contains all the information of its sequence of bases in memory, and is capable of reconstructing itself into the identical chemical molecule; provided the ambient electromagnetic environment in the water is maintained at a frequency of not less than 7Hz which is in the same frequency window as Alpha rhythm brainwaves and the natural Schumann resonance of the Earth. This paper goes on to discuss new research in optogenetics where human beings have been able to modify gene expression with their Alpha rhythm and Mu rhythm brainwaves in the same frequency window as the Schumann resonance, simply by adopting different mental states, and takes note of the fact that these same Alpha and mu rhythms are the main conduit frequency for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The paper presents a general summary of earlier research relating to psi phenomena resulting from interference of brainwaves with the Schumann resonance, and proposes a novel explanation for the recently discovered "mirror neurons" phenomena where the Mu rhythm brainwaves emanating from the motor cortex are able to interfere constructively or destructively with the Schumann resonance of same frequency and thus bring about mental telepathic as well as psychokinesis happenings.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Folly, Mental Health, Disembodiment]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  

Seonaid Abernethy   

Maori World-View (a pre-industrial cultures' episteme of an individual intricate relationships to Nature and others) exemplifies Aristotles Good and the concept of embodied proportionality. Maori World-View is a window through which to understand embodiment, proportionality and The Good otherwise obscured by Cartesian and Ramist methodology. In modern 'Mental Health' practice of risk assessment, there has been a disembodiment, a disproportionality and loss of the end of the Good. This loss is best approached through the historicity of Shakespeares' Twelfth Night for varied reasons. Twelfth Night shows us that an embodied personal performance within a distemperature (mild 'mental health' illness) requires a critical distance from technology and retrieval of proportionality, individuated in any pre-industrial culture.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Family History and Its Influence on Infants' Language Development]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  

Geetanjali Das   and Priya M.   

Infants' language development built upon a variety of experience. Language is commonly defined as an organized way of combining symbols in order to communicate. Parents and caretakers plays an important role in helping children learns to communicate, read and write. There is possibly no greater shift in development than the advancement of language abilities from birth to three. So in present study researcher had made an attempt to identify the language development from 0-2 years. The study was undertaken in Coimbatore district with the total sample of 100 infants selected randomly in the age group 0-2 years and the researcher also interviewed their caretakers like parents, grandparents/aya whose age range from 22-65 years. The researcher framed self-prepared questionnaire to interview care takers as well as had observation of each child. The researcher contacted the infant's care takers and also made direct observation and collected information on how infants respond to their environment, family health status, home environment, care takers role, family type, number of children they have and quality of child care given. Researcher made observation on infants' responses to language or speech and child's abilities in language. From this study it has been found that there was a significant difference observed in infants' language development with respect to gender, number of children present in family, type of family and type of care taker. Family history and health status were less affected on female infants' language development compared to male infants. Whereas, child's age did not predict much influences on language development. Joint family children performed better language and social skills compared to nuclear and extended families. Even though mother and child interactions were more important for language development, children did better when they were along with the grandparents and parents. However when children brought up with helper/aya were not able to think, respond and communicate properly and also discovered they were slower in language abilities.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Cultivating Resilience and Self-control among University Students: An Experimental Study]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  

Renee Morrison   and Aileen M. Pidgeon   

University Students report a range of demands such as academic responsibilities, financial pressures or developing new social networks to be major sources of stress. The literature demonstrates that university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Therefore, the cultivation of resilience and self-control among university students could result in many benefits. Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully to stress and adversity, while self-control is the ability to resist short-term desires in order to meet long-term goals. This experimental study examined the efficacy of using brief willpower strengthening exercises to enhance resilience, self-control, and reduce psychological distress in university students. Forty-six university students were randomised into one of two groups: Willpower Strengthening Group or the Control Group. A two-way repeated MANOVA revealed that university students in the Willpower Strengthening Group reported significantly higher levels of resilience and self-control, and significantly lower levels of psychological distress. The positive feedback and high rate of compliance reported by students to the exercises as per instructions (i.e. every hour, for six hours per day, over seven days) supports the feasibility of using willpower strengthening exercises in programs aimed at increasing resilience. Future research into the feasibility and effectiveness of willpower strengthening exercises has the potential to improve the psychological wellbeing of university students.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Selecting a Theory of Counseling: What Influences a Counseling Student to Choose?]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

John T. Petko   Emma Kendrick   and Mark E. Young   

The study involved 19 masters-level counseling students in a qualitative research study. A structured interview format was utilized on how counseling students acquire their theoretical counseling orientation. Upon completion of structured interview questions, responses from the participants were formatted into themes and codes. The response themes of the participants included such themes as: 1) counseling theory is similar to my personal value system; 2) the theory makes sense logically; 3) I like the techniques this theory uses, etc. Implications from the study are also discussed.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Psychological Factors Involved in Banking, as Encountered in Two Novels]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

Sinan ?aya   

This article compares an American bank in an unknown state in the United States in 1970s with a French bank of 1850s in Paris. Even though those monetary institutions are fictitious as given, one can indeed infer a lot of truth and realism behind the hidden transcripts. As presented in the involved literary works; the French bank depicted by émile Zola and the American bank thought up by Arthur Hailey are, despite the differences in time and geography; very similar in their functions. The former is only more deeply embedded in the stock exchange while the latter is essentially dependent upon loans made possible thanks to depositors. A war of nerves and extreme stress underline the themes of both of those superb novels.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[The Role of Group Members in Facilitating Treatment]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

Mark H. Stone   

The Experiencing Scales were applied to a small therapy group over fifteen sessions to determine the category levels of perception, emotion and insight from the expression of verbal interaction among all members. Analysis identified a gradual and positive increase in category levels, three periods of interaction describing group behavior, and measures of the quantity and quality of responses by individual members. The implications of these findings are discussed with a recommendation for further such analyses as a means of insight for therapists and group members leading to the possible generalizing of findings.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[The Impact of Contextual Factors on Response Patterns of Novel Word Pairings]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

Asimina M. Ralli   

The overall aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of task presentation and context of exposure on children's response patterns of novel word object pairings. The hypothesis was that children's responses will vary by task setting (instructions, number of choice items, and context of presentation). A set of three experiments was administered to 64 preschool age children. Markman's and Hutchinson's experimental paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis. The results suggest that task presentation and context of exposure have an impact on children's response patterns of novel word object pairings, since the inferences about word pairings were highly sensitive to task demands. The results are discussed in terms of their applications both theoretically and methodologically.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Gender and Racial Differences in Career Decision-making Dispositions of College Students Enrolled in STEM Majors]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

Wei-Cheng J. Mau   Valerie J. Perkins   and Yun-Hwa Mau   

Anticipated shortfall in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce in the United States has prompted researchers and policy-makers to examine the supply pipeline and factors influencing the supply pipeline. Applying Social-Cognitive Career Theory, this study examined decision-making predisposition of college students who were interested in STEM majors. Results show significant gender and racial differences in in decision-making self-efficacy, decision-making style, and career indecision. Logistic analyses show that race, decision-making style, and career decision-making self-efficacy significantly predict enrollment in STEM majors. Implications for counseling interventions are discussed.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Integrating the NICHD Forensic Investigative Interview Protocol in the Biopsychosocial-spiritual Model of Care for Victims of CSA and CSE]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  6  

Antero Rosauro V. Arias, Jr.   

Sexual assault on children, whether in the form of abuse, neglect or exploitation, exists globally and is therefore a global concern. Psychological rehabilitation centers that make use of the biopsychosocial-spiritual model do not necessarily incorporate the child victims' need for justice. And although a number of these institutions allow and even support the filing of criminal cases against the perpetrators, they have not incorporated definitive protocols that will ensure the success of the cases and prevent, as well, the inflation and deflation of the accounts of the child victims, including their possible retraumatization. This concept paper proposed the integration of the NICHD Forensic Investigative Interview Protocol that would prepare psychologists and other stakeholders in the various facilities, including those in the administration of justice, to ask the right questions without leading these victims to inflate or deflate their accounts. It would similarly ensure that these stakeholders do the proper documentation of the accounts made by these child victims to serve the purpose of corroborating their court testimonies. The required video recording in the protocol would also bolster the cases of abuse and exploitation and would prevent possible retraumatization. Philippine laws, meanwhile, have underscored the competency doctrine of the child victims as the stare decisis in these cases, as these laws have likewise guaranteed the constitutional right of these perpetrators. The use of this protocol balances the equation by guaranteeing the protection of these child victims and by similarly shielding the innocently accused perpetrators from criminal liability.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Construct and Predictive Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous and Germane Cognitive Load]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  5  

Merima Zuki?   Nermin ?apo   and D?enana Husremovi?   

The aims of this study were to assess the factor structure of a new instrument for the measurement of intrinsic, extraneous and germane cognitive load in a Bosnian sample, to determine the internal consistency of this instrument and to determine whether the instrument predicts learning outcomes. The participants were 75 undergraduate students from the Department of Psychology, University of Sarajevo. Data was collected using the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Intrinsic, Extraneous and Germane Load developed by Leppink, Pass, Van der Vleuten, Van Gog & Van Merrienboer [15] and a Brief Test of Knowledge developed for the purpose of the present study. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis support a three-dimensional model, with the item loadings in the expected manner. The factor structure obtained in our study is consistent with the factor structure reported by Leppink et al. [15]. In addition, the scale items showed good internal consistencies. The results obtained in our study suggest that low intrinsic in combination with high germane scores contribute to learning outcome. High complexity of learning material in combination with not well-organized prerequisite knowledge causes lower investment of germane cognitive resources, i.e. learning process, and consequently lower learning outcome. Overall, despite a relatively small sample size, the results of our study show a clear three-factor structure that corresponded to intrinsic, extraneous and germane cognitive load. The questionnaire could be an important instrument for research practice in domain of CLT. Moreover, the instrument has significant practical value. Educational practitioner can use the instrument in researching and planning their teaching to maximise learning.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[The Relationship of Social Justice Beliefs to Environmental Attitudes among Students at a Private University]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  5  

Trish A. Vandiver   

The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship of social justice beliefs, gender, religiousness, and ethnicity on environmental attitudes among college students at a private university. Participants in the current research with higher scores on social justice measures also had higher scores on three environmental measures: attitudes toward the environment, conscientiousness about the environment and involvement in environment issues. Gender, race/ethnicity, and college major were not found to be statistically significant. Future research should examine the role of social justice beliefs on environmental attitudes in more general populations of college students.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Living within a Broken Vow: The Impact of Parental Infidelity among Late Adolescents in Establishing Romantic Relationships]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  5  

Francine Rose A. de Castro-Bofill   Matt Jayson M. Barrameda   Matt Calvin S. Dadivas   Ellaine R. Panganiban   and Ailly Cheska G. San Jose   

The present study aimed to know the possible impact of parental infidelity among late adolescents in establishing romantic relationships with a significant other. It employed a qualitative research and used the approach on social constructivism in which it described the adolescents' experiences about parental infidelity as numerous and subjective as they interact with the social world. A survey was conducted in identifying twelve (12) participants, ages 15 to 19, which experienced parental infidelity from University of the East-Manila enrolled in academic year 2014-2015. One (1) hour in-depth interviews were recorded and guided by the researchers' validated aide memoir. All recorded interactions with the participants were transcribed into field text. The participants' responses were carefully analyzed through Thematic Analysis and Collaizi's procedure. The researchers found that the impact of parental infidelity among late adolescents in establishing relationships is a process and is best depicted through a cross, or The C.R.O.S.S. in Infidelity, with five conceptual themes which also signify the process that late adolescents usually go through after discovering their parents' infidel behavior. The themes conceptualized were: reaction; circumspection; self-recognition; stagnation; and overturn. The C.R.O.S.S In Infidelity may serve as an aid in counseling as well as a guide in creating an intervention program to help these late adolescents cope with the experiences of parental infidelity.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Parents' Personality and Their Expectations about Child's Development]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  5  

Taslima Begum   and Akibul-Ul-Huque   

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of parent's personality on their expectations about the development of their children. It was hypothesized that Big-five personality would predict parental expectations. Data were collected from 64 mothers (XAge= 32.76, SD =6.95) and 36 fathers (XAge= 40.08, SD =8.35) using parental expectation questionnaire of child's development and Revised bangle version of Saucer's Big Five- Mini Markers. Multiple regression analysis indicated that openness to experience was the strongest predictor (β = .404, p <.05) followed by extraversion (β = -.351, p <.05). The model explained 24.1% variance of parental expectations of child's development. However, agreeableness, emotional stability and conscientiousness did not predict parental expectations. Possible explanations have been put forth to account for the findings.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Long-term Group and Premature Drop out Groups in Psychotherapy: Yalom's 'Here and Now' Techniques]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  5  

Boonyawee Senaboonyarit   

The Yalom's 'here-and-now' techniques-activation and illumination is worked particularly in each session of long-term group psychotherapy. Both activation and illumination help therapist interpret, reflect, and clarify individual's behaviors. In the premature, dropping out of group, the therapist also used both in order to do following benefits: reduce the clients' psychological distress, increase individual's self-esteem, and foster client's hope in group session as well as maintain positive outcome of long-term group psychotherapy. The volunteers in long-term group psychotherapy of the Thai Psychotherapist Association was observed and recorded the 'here-and-now' techniques by an observer when the premature drop out presented in the group process. The result of this study showed that most of Yalom's 'here-and-now' activation was demonstrated in premature drop out group.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Voice Behavior and Career Success: The Moderating Role of Supervisor Attribution Motives]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Jen-Wei Cheng   Yi-Tai Seih   Cheng-Ze Hung   and Tzu-Wei Su   

This paper aims to develop a model delineating the relationship between altruistic concern for prosocial motives/felt accountability for impression management motives of voice behavior and employees' career success. The model proposed in this study argues that the relationship between motives and career success depends on the voice behavior mediating mechanism and the moderating effect of supervisor-attributed motives on the relationship between voice behavior and career success. The results stress the importance of the context of supervisor attribution motives in linked voice behavior and career success. Overall, our model attempts to address these concerns by highlighting in particular the role of the perspective of supervisor attribution motives to advance the body of knowledge about voice behavior and career success. Practical and theoretical implications are addressed on the basis of the research findings as well as suggestions for future research in the employee voice behavior field.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[The Women in 3 Perspectives of World Education]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Sitti Hutari Mulyani   and Haris Satria   

A good education will drive someone has thought and insight. A woman should have a good education, as with educated he can set the management of his life and his family. Women also have equal rights with men, namely to be a leader. Behind it all, a woman should have a good education in social relations. Women have three roles in life: 1. Women as a wife; 2. Woman as a mother; 3. Women as a woman's career. Not all women in performing three functions in one time. It takes a good education through three female perspective. Education is the most important part in education and is a necessity for every human being including women. And this research is more directed to the psychology of education. Interpersonal communication is the most important part in determining the outcome.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[Computer Addiction of Students in Schools under the Office of Basic Education Commission, Bangkok]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Kamonmarn Virutsetazin   

This study aimed to detect and propose solution to computer addicted obese students in grades 9-11. In phase I, 288 students (18 schools) were chosen to explore computer addiction and related factors, and 36 volunteers were recruited to brain storm and create strategic management. In phase II, 90 comparison groups (3 schools) and 82 experimental groups(3 schools) attended the training of constructing E-magazines to enhance their creative use of computers. The results showed that in phase I, the percentage of computer addiction was 7.39; that were more likely in males (2.20:1). There were statistically significant differences in the means of computer addiction regarding gender, education level, GPA. and parent's education. There were statistically significant correlations between academic performance, consumption, relaxation, exercise, heath status, and personality and computer addiction. Special and closer attention should be paid to these, and a risk-focus approach should be implemented in introversion-neuroticism personalities. In phrase II, the posttest indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in computer game use, frequency of use and hours spent on a computer.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[The Psychological Autopsy as a Means to Analyse Cases of Mass-murder and Homicide-suicide]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Andreas Frei, MD   

In February 2013, a 42 year-old worker in Central Switzerland shot four of his colleagues on his workplace in the canteen unexpectedly, wounded five more seriously and eventually he was shot during the event. This event called "amok" in the lay press can be classified as mass murder according to several authors. There was no apparent reason for this deed, and the perpetrator had not been a mobbing victim nor had he been treated unfairly by his supervisors at work. The district attorney ordered a psychological autopsy of the perpetrator which revealed that he had suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and acted according to his delusions of persecution. This paper discusses how to perform such an investigation. The application of psychological autopsy is strongly recommend in future similar cases.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[Just Ordinary Water - A Necessity for All Forms of Life]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Ingrid Fredriksson   

In every living being and organism there is an entire world as amazing as the one we see around us. In our body there are 100 trillion cells (1012), and DNA that extends 10,000 kilometers. The base pairs in our DNA are held together by hydrogen. Maybe the hydrogen bonds in DNA′s base pairs that constitutes our immune system and our consciousness. There is water in the cells, and between them, and while large molecules have to go through membrane proteins to enter the cells, small molecules like H2O and O2 can pass through the cell membrane without difficulty. In the spaces between the brain cells, at the end of every neuron, the basic unit of a brain cell is synapses, where chemical charges build up. In the same space dendrites - tiny filaments of nerve endings communicate with other neurons, sending out and receiving their own electrical wave impulses. This, together with the quantum hologram and non-local consciousness, provides an explanation and an exciting developmental phase in the illusion in which we live.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[Is It Difficult to Decide? Preliminary Study for Career Maturity in University Students]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  4  

Vera Angliani Juwita   

It is complicated making career decision after undergraduate education, particularly for individuals who come from families with collectivistic culture. Preliminary findings study regarding the career maturity of 161 college students (73 men, 88 women, age average is 21 years) from fourth year-level at the University of Jenderal Achmad Yani, Cimahi, showed that 58.38% of respondents had a low level career maturity. Data measurements (reliability alpha = .884), based to the theory of career maturity from Crites (1978), shows the main obstacles that arise are related to the ability of goal-decision and self-efficacy in decision making. Interview's data shows that parents are still seen as the main figures that influence the decision-making of career choices.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[What is Right with the First Year Disadvantaged Students? Towards a Strength Based Perspective in Resolving Poor Academic Achievement in Science and Technology]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Duduzile Rosemary Mkhize  

The challenge facing South Africa’s higher education is the poor academic performance of the disadvantaged university students. This leads to a low number of graduates. This is particularly prevalent in the field of science, engineering and technology. Research addressing this problem utilizes deficit models, which focus on what is lacking among students. This paper will argue for a strength based model in tackling the poor performance of first year students. The strength based model has its roots from positive psychology which seeks to focus on what is right, rather than what is wrong. Hence the paper will discuss the strengths the first year students possess. These are malleable self-identity and cognitive growth resulting from their developmental stage, their schoolhouse giftedness exhibited by their high school superior academic performance. And finally their positive coping styles from findings of research on coping styles of adolescents from different countries. The paper argues that these strengths can be utilised as the stepping stones to enhance achievement. The paper concludes by proposing for research that pays more attention and value the strengths the disadvantaged students have, as a strategy to resolve low academic achievement of the disadvantaged youth who enters university.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[General Systems Theory (GST) and Concepts of Indian Philosophy May Provide a Holistic View of Consciousness and Its Evolution]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Surendra Singh Pokharna   and Dilip K Bobra   

This paper describes limitations of the scientific knowledge and the scientific formalism which is currently used to study living systems and human systems in general [1-7]. It is suggested that there is a need to explore the General Systems Theory (GST) for better understanding of these issues [8-9]. General Systems Theory (GST) is a generalized methodology to study properties of both the physical systems and the social systems [10-13]. It is shown that the concept soul and soul-matter interaction of Jainism [14-16] and their concept that knowledge is structured in the consciousness needs to be examined in the modern context. Three examples are given which shows that the concept of knowledge of consciousness has a great meaning and it can be good example to be pursued by the scientists. They lead one to infer that there exist higher dimensions of knowledge including Extra Sensory Perception (ESP) which are not yet properly explored in a systematic way in the context of understanding soul [17-20] As a consequence of this, it is also mentioned that Darwin's principle of 'Survival of the fittest' should be compared to a wider principle 'Live and Let Live' of Jains based on higher dimensions of knowledge which put more emphasize more on underlying identify (common soul) among all living beings than differences among them [3, 21]. This comparison could provide a new way of looking at the concept of evolution and so the concept of spiritual evolution should be also examined in the modern perspective. Ultimately it appears that the characteristics of a pure soul as described in Jainism may provide new ways and new concepts to the modern scientists in understanding the soul/consciousness. Their concept of pure knowledge seems to be quite close to the concept of Implicate Order of quantum mechanics as described by David Bohm [22]. Finally it is proposed that the process of spiritual evolution as described in Jainism to achieve the highest state of soul may be accompanied by decrease in rate of entropy production at every stage and building up of some new type of order [3].

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Autism Spectrum Disorders: Five Things You Should Know about Autism Treatment]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Renee L. Bauer   

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are typically very complex neurobiological disabilities that concur with developmental disabilities. Generally, this illness presents during the first three years of life and is more commonly found in males. Ranging from mild, moderate, to severe, this disease affects the normal development of the brain regarding social interactions and communication skills (Halter, 2014). Symptoms present as mild, such as the inability to bond with others, to aggression such as head banging and rage. Characteristically, individuals display delayed age appropriate interactions and require intensive intervention if they are to lead a productive life. The prevalence of autism is on the upsurge and with this comes the recent revision of the American Psychiatry Associations' taxonomy (DSM-V) (Brady, 2014). Both genetics and the environment may play a role in causes of this disorder (NINDS, 2014). Between 20 to 30 percent of children with ASD develop epilepsy by the time they are an adult. Not unlike other disorders, autism does have a genetic link and many children with autism have a relative with the disease. The controversy surrounding autism with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is still continuing. Many individuals felt that this vaccination lead to the late development of the late-onset disorder. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the Academy of Pediatrics have been conducting research for years and made a conclusion as there is no link to MMR and the development of the disease (Videbeck, 2014).

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Value Orientation as a Moderator on Self-stigma in People with Mental Illness]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Sofia Hsiou-Huei Lai   

This study explores whether the self-stigma in people with mental illness is moderated by value orientation -- collectivism and individualism. A model of value orientation and self-stigmatization was depicted and tested with data collected in Taiwan, where 182 subjects voluntarily participated in the survey. The model demonstrated the ideas that collectivism thoughts alleviate self-stigma, while individualism beliefs strengthen the stigmatization process. All the hypotheses, including a measurement structure, a causal path with covariate variable and two separate moderator effects, were significantly supported. Implications of the findings for academicians and practitioners in psychiatric rehabilitation were discussed.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Effects of Spatial Crowding on Store Loyalty: Roles of Store Size]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Yongsoo Ha   and Yuri Lee   

Spatial crowding and social crowding are mutually distinctive dimensions of perceived crowding. This study investigates the sole effects of spatial crowding on store loyalty and the roles of store size in spatial crowding-store loyalty relationships. Two video clips which display different store size were recorded for the purpose of the study. An internet survey was conducted with 400 fashion brand consumers. A multiple group analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling. This study consists of three stages. The first stage tested the general effects of spatial crowding. Test results showed that, when social crowding was controlled, spatial crowding did not show negative impacts on pleasure, rather the relationship was positive. Pleasure showed positive impact on expectation and, subsequently, it led to store loyalty. Such results are opposed to a prevailing belief that retail store crowding results in negative retail outcomes. The second stage tested the role of store size. Density and social crowding were controlled as the same level in both small and large stores. In the large store, spatial crowding effected on pleasure positively, whereas, the effect was negative in the small store. The third stage revealed the mediating effect of perceived control, albeit partially. In the small store, the negative effects of spatial crowding on pleasure dropped in magnitude when perceived control was included as a mediator. Implications for practice and future research opportunities are discussed.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Diffusion Process of Mobile Social Shopping Based on LINE Service]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  3  

Wei-Shang Fan   and Jan-Kai Huang   

It seems that Line has become the most commonly used instant messaging software. Over 44 million people are sending messages through Line everyday with one billion messages flowing between mobile phones and computers in the world. Why Line would be so popular in Taiwan and people are obsessed by it? For what reason the software could attract people to use and set up discussing group to further create unlimited demands? The topic is worthy of exploring and investigating. To better understand the crucial factors of behavior intention in use of activity community service, this study is intended to investigate what kinds of factors effect of using LINE service on consumers' attitude towards in activity community market. The research approach includes the bass SEM model and catastrophe model. We explore the relationships between satisfaction, switching barriers and behavior intention through by CFA and SEM. Secondly, GEMCAT is employed to estimate the cusp catastrophe model using our research data. The qualitative model was instrumental in planning a strategy for a changing market environment characterized by inflation and decreasing switching cost. With high switching cost, whether a person is satisfied or dissatisfied, it is very difficult to change to the opposite state. Finally, we discuss the findings from an academic and managerial perspective and provide directions for future research.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Treating High Conflict Divorce]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Brenda J. Barnwell   and Mark H. Stone   

A model for treating high conflict in divorce is presented because the standard service model typically mandated is not sufficient to address the high stress dynamics residing in family systems or the self-concept of parents. The model for treating high conflict emanates from Bowen's family systems model and Kohut's theory of self-psychology. A strategy for client assessment and program evaluation is outlined together with an example showing the effectiveness of treatment for one sample of participants.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[Preferences of Lifestyles in High School Students and Their Relation to Gender, School Achievement and Parents Education]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Marija Mladenovska-Dimitrovska   and Aleksandar Dimitrovski   

The aim of the research is to determine the lifestyle preferences in high school students, as well as to determine the differences in the preferences between respondents according to gender, school achievement and parents' education. The survey was conducted on a sample of 237 subjects, students of secondary schools in Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. In the research was used the Scale for measuring the value orientations by Popadi? (1995), which measure 10 value orientations: family-sentimental, altruistic, cognitive, utilitarian, egoistic, hedonistic, religious-traditional, orientation to popularity, Promethean activism and orientation to power. The results showed that the most preferred lifestyle is a family-sentimental, which means that the family is one of the dominant values, following utilitarian lifestyle, egoistic and hedonistic orientation. At least preferred lifestyles are: orientation to popularity, orientation to power and cognitive lifestyle. There were no significant differences in terms of lifestyle preferences among the respondents of different gender, with exception of the orientation to popularity, which is more valued by the girls. Students who have less success at school more prefer the hedonistic orientation and orientation to popularity, while students who have better success at school, more value the cognitive lifestyle. Students whose parents are more educated more prefer the cognitive lifestyle of students whose parents have lower levels of education.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[Quality of Life and Hopelessness among Adolescent Rag Pickers of Delhi, India]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Akbar Hussian   and Monu Lal Sharma   

Rag pickers are marginalized section of our society. India grappling the problem of shelter particularly in the urban societies besides other socio economic problems likes other Asian countries. Children living and working on streets are bound to adopt substandard life style due to lack of basic facilities. As results their quality of life includes physical health, social and psychological functioning severely destabilized and tends to develop sense of insecurity, hopelessness, depression, anxiety etc. Therefore, the study was conducted on the adolescents engaged in rag picking on the streets of Delhi to measure their quality of life and its impact on future perspective thinking. For that purpose sixty rag pickers were taken incidentally from different localities of Delhi. The participants of were male and between the age range of 12 – 18 engaged in rag picking. Sixty adolescents not engaged in rag picking and living with the parents were also taken from the same locality. WHOQOL-BREF and Beck hopelessness scales (BHS) were administered on both the groups of participants to assess their quality of life and sense of hopelessness. The finding suggested that rag picker adolescents were found suffering from significantly poor quality of life as well as higher degree of hopelessness. Findings further indicated negative relationship between quality of life and sense of hopelessness.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[Psychotherapy as Practice of Myself]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Ludmila Vorobyova   

The article is devoted to philosophical consideration of psychotherapeutic discourse in social and cultural context. The author uses the archaeological method of Michel Foucault, focusing on the analysis of the changes in the medical discourse of psychiatry that occurred with the advent of psychoanalysis on the ?axis? of power and ethos.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[Adaptation of Reminiscence Functions Scale for Bangladeshi Population]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Asheek Mohammad Shimul   and Jannatul Ferdous   

Objective of the present study was to adapt the Reminiscence Functions Scale (RFS) in Bangla to be used in the context of Bangladeshi culture and background. Data were collected from 300 adult participants using survey method. Among the participants 171 were male and 129 were female. Their age range was 17 to 90 (Mean = 37.69, SD=12.47). Psychometric analysis included item analysis, principal component analysis with varimax rotation, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha. The 43-items were found to be psychometrically acceptable to construct this Bangla version of RFS by Webster [9]. Data revealed eight factors, namely -Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Identity, Problem-Solving, Conversation, Intimacy Maintenance, Bitterness Revival, and Teach/Inform. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability of the instrument was found .81 and .89 respectively. Psychometric evidences indicate this self-report Likert instrument is both reliable as well as valid measure of reminiscence function and hence suggested to be usable in the context of Bangladesh.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[Multi-factorial Dimension of Employees Productivity of Selected Private Tertiary Educational Institution in Manila]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  2  

Eriberto R. Astorga, Jr.   Hazel S. Martinez   and Herbert D. Vertucio   

An employee is required to have the exact body of work that deals with the language of systematic, well-organized, and constant manner of productivity in any tertiary educational institution that is empowered to provide a good quality of work with due respect to educational progress and its practical applications. It supplements the interactive way of solving multi-factorial dimensions of employee productivity through Higher Thinking Skills of coping and establishing a growing educational institution. Most faculty and employees do understand their obligation to become more productive which allows them to become worthwhile individuals involved in understanding the role and achievement of multi-factorial dimensions of work such as quality of teaching, research, and the nature of public service. However, it is intended to call the attention of administrators, faculty, and employees of the educational system by doing a comprehensive and interactive supplement of work which significantly manifests its multi-factorial dimensions as the total package of the system. Their entire interest should be enlightened through forming collaborative and direct encouragement, determination, and patience with effective way of educational living that will sufficiently overcomes strenuous difficulties in relationships with each other together with the system which appreciates implementation and use of interactive development plan.

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Mar 2016
<![CDATA[On the Origin of Consciousness - A Personal Experience on the Interaction of Mind and Body]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  1  

Borje Peratt   

The title is, of course, an allusion to Darwin's classic book "On the Origin of Species." Here we are concerned with the question of whether there is actually an origin of consciousness or if consciousness is eternal and its availability limited by physical senses. A car crash in 1987 opened my mind to the possibility of consciousness existing independent of the senses i.e. independent of the brain and body. The circumstances surrounding the accident involve a variety of extrasensory perceptions, which, up to that time, I had ignored because of my scepticism. The accident almost cost me my life and led to a long period of convalescence reflecting on what had happened. My documentation of the resultant experiences made it plausible for me to conclude that extrasensory sources of information were active even before the crash and also that these senses seemed to be boosted during the years that followed. In order to understand what had happened, I started to investigate my own experiences and then began to search to see if there were other people reporting similar experiences. It initiated what was to become research for more than twenty years. This really took off when the Internet and its search engines enabled data collection. The method based on Grounded Theory led to proto-scientific theories, published in book form in Swedish.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[Beneficial Effects of Regular Physical Exercises on Mental State in Visually Impaired and Deaf-blind Adults]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  1  

Airi Surakka   Mika Venojarvi   and Kauko Pitkanen   

The most common mental health problems in visually impaired and deaf-blind adults are depression, anxiety, tension, difficulties in falling asleep and disturbed sleep. The physical training program used in this study was designed with the aim of reducing the physical and mental problems of this population. Twenty-four visually impaired and deaf-blind adults completed a 5-6-week supervised physical training program (three 60-minute sessions per week) with varying rhythms of music. Motivation was enhanced in a number of ways, including measurement of weight, blood pressure, flexibility of upper body and trunk and gait analysis before and after the intervention. After completion of the training program the participants themselves assessed the effect of the intervention by answering freely in their own words the question: "Did you feel or notice any effect of the physical training program?" The responses showed that 22 participants experienced improvements in physical condition (binomial one-sided confidence interval CI = 0.76, confidence level 95%), 21 in mental state (CI = 0.71) and 11 in balance (CI = 0.28). According to this study moderate and regular physical exercises reduce mental and physical problems and allow visually impaired and deaf-blind adults to live to the fullest with independent mobility, orientation, and better self-confidence and self-esteem.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[The Simplicity of Complex Systems: The Inquiry into the Nature of Life, Mind, and Death Phenomena (Essay)]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  1  

Mark Iosim   

The main goal of this paper is the search for the explanation of life phenomena. These days it is common to employ the concept of emergence as a gateway for an explanation of complex system phenomena like mind and life. However, after almost a century of development, emergentism has not demonstrated that it is a viable alternative to reductionism. In this paper emergence is viewed as an illusion caused by hidden properties of parts observable only during interactions in the system; the system acts as "litmus test" or a "magnifying glass" revealing the parts' properties not observable otherwise. This methodology, when pushed to its limits, leads to the radical conclusion that life phenomena may not be explained within the boundary of existing physical paradigms. Instead, it is argued that panpsychism, which recognizes mental capacity as a fundamental property of matter, is superior to physicalism in explaining not only Life and Mind, but also the notoriously controversial topics of quantum mechanics. There is a high price for accepting this view, because it requires the rejection of fundamental scientific paradigms. However, the reward for the transition to this new paradigm justifies the cost, because the new approach promises to eliminate "weirdness" from the interpretation of quantum mechanics, unite physical and life sciences, and bridge science with spiritual experience. In contemporary science, panpsychism experiences broad unacceptance and is seen as merely a vestige of primitive pre-scientific beliefs. To be taken seriously, panpsychism needs to demonstrate its superiority in the interpretation of natural phenomena. Several examples demonstrating the power of the new paradigm in solving the most challenging problems faced by science are presented in this paper. The examples cover a wide range of scientific inquiries such as interpretation of quantum mechanics, the theory of consciousness and intelligence, emergence of life.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[Depression, Ketamine Treatment, and the Theater of Consciousness]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  1  

Michael A. Cerullo   and Andrew Stryker   

In severe depression thoughts of suicide can develop over weeks or months. Traditional pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic treatments take several weeks before they begin to improve symptoms. This gradual improvement is consistent with our everyday experience of the self. However, a new treatment, ketamine, can alter depressive symptoms within hours or even minutes. Ketamine can stop suicidal thoughts in as little as 20 minutes and is being developed to treat suicidal patients in the emergency room. Rapid changes in a belief as complex as suicide raise new questions about the self and identity. More complicated models of the self are required to understand how rapid changes in complex beliefs are possible without invoking unrealistic specificity in the brain (i.e. grandmother cells for belief). If the brain has multiple competing selves within modules then ketamine could work by either turning a self module on or off. This is consistent with a modified version of the global workspace theory of consciousness where a self module provides the context for the spotlight of attention.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[Research of School Bullying Behaviors on Junior High School Students in Southern Taiwan City]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  4  Number  1  

Wang Chuan-Hsing   Chou Mei-Ju   and Huang Chia-Fen   

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of the school bullying behaviors of students in junior high schools in Tainan City. It also compares the differences among the varied personal, family, and school backgrounds, and explores the relationships between what influences school bullying and being-bullied behaviors and school bullying and being-bullied behaviors. Finally, it analyzes the anticipated facts that influence school bullying and being-bullied behaviors. The subjects in this research were the public and private junior high school students of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade in Tainan City, and the researcher compiled questionnaires –"the investigation on the school bullying behaviors of students in junior high school in Tainan City." There were 641 questionnaires given and 639 effective questionnaires were collected. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, the method of Independent t test, One-way ANOVA, Scheffe Posteriori comparison, Pearson Product-moment and multiple regression with SPSS. The findings were as follows: 1. The school bullying behaviors on students of junior high school in Tainan City still exist. 2. There are significant distinctions on the school bullying behaviors in the different personal backgrounds for the students of junior high school in Tainan City, including gender, interpersonal relationship, and academic achievement. 3. There are significant distinctions on the school bullying behaviors in the different family backgrounds for the students of junior high school in Tainan City, including family members, sibling numbers, the harmony of parents' marriage, and parents' discipline. 4. There are significant distinctions in the school bullying behaviors in the different school backgrounds for the students of junior high school in Tainan City, including homeroom teacher's discipline. 5. The whole school bullying behaviors, bullying behaviors and being bullied of students of junior high school in Tainan City are positively related to each aspect-privacy, language, body, and majority. 6. There is significant anticipation of the facts of influencing school bullying behaviors for school bullying behaviors. That means we can use the facts of junior school bullying behaviors to predict the behaviors of school bullying. The facts include interpersonal relationship, homeroom teacher's misinterpretation, gender, the harmony of parents' marriage, family members, and parents' discipline.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[Drug Addicts' Behavior and the Built Environment of the Old City of Jerusalem]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  6  

Leila Bustami   and Nisreen Harhash   

This study explores the contribution of the built environment of the old city of Jerusalem to the widespread drug abuse phenomenon there. Using the ethnographic interviewing method, 6 recovered addicts viewed pictures of 16 related locations in the Muslim quarter of the city and recalled how they saw and used them. After qualitative analysis of the collected narratives, it was found that the city's distinguished features (old walls, deteriorating crowded houses, abandoned enclosures, dark angled alleyways, and isolated areas) helped addicts to avoid being arrested or robbed as well as to abuse drug safely. This environment-behavior relationship conforms with Gibson's (1979) ecological psychology of visual perception and recognizes the affordances of those features which through preserving and vitalizing, can be made less attractive to addicts and more life sustaining to all.

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Nov 2015
<![CDATA[Carer Attachment Moderates Resilience for Young People Experiencing Psychosis or Depression]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  6  

G. Sawle   C. J. Lennings   and R. Heard   

This paper explored the transactional nature of carer attachment, proposing that carer insecure attachment may influence the development of psychopathology and resilience in Young People (YP) experiencing psychosis or depression. Seventy-five matched carer and YP dyads were grouped according to the YP diagnosis, psychosis forty-three and depression thirty-two. YP and carers completed an attachment protocol, Attachment Style Questionnaire and the YP's scores on the Ego-Resiliency Scale measured resilience. Diagnosis of Depression was associated with low YP resilience and high carer insecure (avoidant) attachment. Diagnosis of Psychosis was associated with high YP resilience and insecure (anxious) carer attachment. The results are plausibly explained by the type of carer insecure attachment combining with the YP's level of resilience to influence development of psychopathology in YP. If so, the assessment of carer attachment is likely to provide insights into the interpersonal transactions that influence resilience in YP experiencing Mental Health problems.

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Nov 2015
<![CDATA[Reality/Fiction Distinction and Fiction/Fiction Distinction during Sentence Comprehension]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  6  

Jie Yang   and Jin Xue   

The current study examined the cognitive mechanisms of distinguishing reality from fiction and distinguishing different fictional worlds. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences containing reality/fiction mismatch or fiction/fiction mismatch. Results showed that reality/fiction mismatch elicited a N400 effect and a late positivity relative to correct sentences, whereas fiction/fiction mismatch induced a N400 effect. Experiment 2 investigated the reality/fiction distinction after controlling personal relevance. Participants read sentences containing famous people or fictional characters with low personal relevance. Results indicated that reality/fiction mismatch elicited a late positivity in the middle and posterior sites, whereas the pure low relevance showed a late positivity in the posterior sites. The mechanisms under reality/fiction distinction, fiction/fiction distinction, and high/low relevance distinction are discussed.

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Nov 2015
<![CDATA[Attitude as a Predictor of Trust in Food Safety: A Study of Malaysian Chinese College Students]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  6  

Shujen Lee Chang   and Cze Chiun Wong   

Objective: This study explored the relationship between consumers' trust in and attitude towards food safety and, then, examined the prediction of trust in food safety by the attitude towards food safety. Method: One hundred and eight Malaysian Chinese college students (42 men, 66 women) completed online survey. Trust in food safety included dimensions of ways of shopping, food quality, cooking methods, consumption situation, and purchasing motives. Attitude towards food safety consisted of positive and negative aspects. Results: Positive attitude towards food safety significantly correlated to and successfully predicted trust in food safety concerning cooking methods and consumption situation. On the other hand, negative attitude towards food safety significantly correlated to and successfully predicted trust in food safety regarding ways of shopping, food quality, and purchasing motives. Conclusion: Malaysian Chinese college students with positive or negative attitude towards food safety were able to predict different behaviors concerning their trust in food safety. Those with positive attitude towards food safety tended to enjoy various cooking methods and share food with friends and family members. Those with negative attitude towards food safety most likely would shop cautiously, choose most fresh and healthy food, read into product labels, and believe advertised food.

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Nov 2015
<![CDATA[Differences in Self-evaluation of Narcissism and Therapeutic Relation of Students and Psychotherapists from Different Psychotherapy Schools]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  6  

Jelena Tovarovic   and Zorica Knezevic   

Personal characteristics such as narcissism, may affect the therapeutic relationship and the quality of work with clients. The aim of research is to establish whether there are differences in self-evaluation of narcissism and therapeutic relationship between students and psychotherapists of various psychotherapy schools. Research was conducted on the sample of 99 subjects, of whom 38 are psychotherapists from Transactional Analysis, 36 are therapists from Gestalt and 25 are students from Integrative psychotherapy school. The instrument used for evaluation of narcissism is NPI-40 at five-point scale (α=.91), which contains the following dimensions: Authority, Self-sufficiency, Superiority, Exhibitionism, Exploitative, Vanity, and Entitlement. Therapist's relation towards the clients is evaluated by HAQ-II questionnaire (α=.80), which measures positive and negative therapist's relation towards the client. Results show that there are statistically significant differences in total narcissism Also, there are significant differences at various subscales of measured narcissism: Self-sufficiency, Exhibitionism, Exploitative and Entitlement. Results show that there are also differences in negative relation towards the clients, and this is between Gestalt and Integrative. Obtained results may be primarily interpreted by various education profiles and courses of students, future therapists.

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Nov 2015
<![CDATA[How Cinema Sounds Affect the Perception of a Motion Picture]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  5  

Andreas G. Anestis   and Christos A. Gousios   

The object of the present study was to investigate the effects of sound on the perception of motion pictures by film viewers. For this purpose, we selected a sequence from the film "Elephant" (G. Van Sant, 2003) and composed two alternative soundtracks. The three different versions of the sequence (one with the original soundtrack and two with the alternative ones) were screened to 51 adult students (mean age 21.3 y.o.), who answered a series of questions after each screening. We concluded that different soundtracks change the perception of the audience mainly concerning the recognition of the film gender and the emotions that the viewers develop while watching the sequence. Moreover, the sound-design can possibly create visual illusions when the source of sound is shown on screen. Finally, factors like the sex and the field of studies seemed to differentiate our results, thus revealing their potential effect on the viewer's perception.

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Sep 2015
<![CDATA[Rejecting Behaviour and Separation Initiatives as Aspects of the Mother-infant Independence Dynamics in Rhesus Monkeys]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  5  

Tartabini Angelo   

This paper suggests that attachment, rejecting behaviour and independence initiatives among rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) constitute the most critical elements of mother-infant interactions. Results of previous studies of different family groups indicate that both the mothers' rejecting behaviour and the infants' independence initiatives (or social activities) are not homogeneus but instead differ from each other, depending on subjects' individual differences and on the diverse relationships and experiences among members of the family groups. These findings underline the relevance of a methodology that takes into account individual, dyadic and social variables among subjects. This complex of variables represents a potentially useful methodology for studies on the attachment-independence process in mother-infant interactions in rhesus monkeys and in many other species of monkeys.

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Sep 2015
<![CDATA[Price Range Effect on Extremeness Aversion and Compromise Effect]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  5  

Pei-Hsun Wu   Mei-Ching Huang   and Yi-Shu Wang   

Recent decision research has discovered the presence of the extremeness aversion and compromise effect in choice. The extremeness aversion and compromise effect extend the principle of loss aversion. Based on the inference that a loss will not be possibly prominent when the price range for alternatives in a choice set was narrower, the present research pointed out that the prices difference for alternatives in the choice set, via different psychological mechanisms, loss aversion versus cost-effectiveness, affects a consumer's choice. Two studies demonstrated that the level of extremeness aversion (Study 1) and compromise effect (Study 2) in the case of a wider price range will be higher than that in the case of a narrower price range. Theoretical and practical implications of the finding were discussed.

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Sep 2015
<![CDATA[A Study of Parental Acceptance - Rejection and Aggression towards Parents of Adolescence]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  4  

Mahadi - Ul - Morshed  Md. Nore Nobi Nirobe  and Hamida Naz  

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any significant relation between parental acceptance - rejection and aggression towards parents of adolescence. For this purpose 960 students were selected randomly from various institution of Dhaka city. Among of them 934 students respond for investigation and used following questionnaire - a. Adult PARQ: Father & Mother Version of Rohner [11], B. Aggression Towards Parents of Dolan [5] . In this study it is found that, the significant positive correlation between aggression towards parents and sub parts of parental acceptance-rejection (Father warmth/affection, neglect/indifference, rejection/undifference, Mother warmth/affection, Mother control and Mother total) and there is no significant difference between male and female according to aggression towards parents. This result implies that, there is an effect on parent child interaction.

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Jul 2015
<![CDATA[Psychological Training in Sailing: Performance Improvement for the Olympic Classification Phase]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  4  

Aurelio Olmedilla   Enrique Ortega   Juan González   and Sidonio Serpa   

This paper presents a case study, with the objective of demonstrating the psychological training of a 23 year-old sailing athlete, during the athletic preparation of the classification phase for the 2012 Olympic Games in London. The psychological training programme that was implemented demonstrates efficacy in the improvement of the athlete's psychological skills; the psychological programme was assessed by the athlete as very positive, both from the viewpoint of satisfaction as well as efficacy; case studies seem to be ideal for the analysis of the relationships between psychological training programmes and the athletic performance of the athlete.

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Jul 2015
<![CDATA[Hearing, Deaf and Cochlear Implanted Adolescent Males' Social Confidence (C.I. Males are not Confident in the Presence of Deaf Males)]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  4  

Mike Berry   and Louise O' Rourke   

We examined differences between Deaf, Cochlear Implanted (CI) and hearing male adolescents in terms of their social confidence levels. 54 Deaf, CI user and hearing male adolescents completed a version of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS) that was specifically designed for adolescents by Maxwell-McCaw and the Jackson Personality Inventory. There was a significant main effect of hearing and deaf environment and hearing environment and general social confidence, but no significant interaction between environment and preferred mode of communication or its effect on social confidence scores. There was no association between age and social confidence scores or a significant correlation between parental hearing status, suggesting that the hearing status of participants' families had no effect on their levels of social confidence. However, CI male users demonstrated lower social confidence out of the three group conditions, particularly when in the company of Deaf individuals.

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Jul 2015
<![CDATA[Work Related Stress and Work - Family Interference as a Predictor of Support from Work and Home: A Study amongst Women Employees of Indian Railways]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  4  

S. M. Soundria   and P David Jawahar   

Work Related Stress and Work - Family Interference (WRS & WFI) gives high annoyance to work life and family life. In these circumstances Support from Work and Home (SWH) is vital for working people. This study aims at determining and establishing a relationship between WRS & WFI and SWH among women employees in Indian southern railways. The study employs the, Carlson - Perrew's WRS, Carlson - Kacmar - Wayne's WFI and Nora Madjar - Greg - Oldham and Michael G. Pratt ‘s SWH inventories to quantify WRS & WFI and SWH levels respectively. The sample consists of 172 women employees in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. Various statistical implements have been used to interpret the data. The study finds that there is a positive relationship between SWH and factors that constitute the WRS & WFI.

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Jul 2015
<![CDATA[Measures of Aggression in Young Korean Children: A Review of 10 Years of Empirical Research]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  4  

Hana Song   Jooreun Kim   and Hanna Yoo   

The present study reviewed types of Korean versions of aggression measures for preschool children, which have been used in recent studies of Korea, and then examined the evidence of the reliability and validity of the measures. We also examined gender differences using meta-analysis. Forty six articles, which were published from 2005 through 2014, were selected from scientific databases. Results showed that the PSBS was most frequently used, followed by the PBQ, the CBCL and the SCBE in Korea. Cronbach's alpha ranged between .70 and .97 across measures except one, indicating acceptable levels of internal consistency. The result of the meta-analysis indicated that boys displayed significantly higher aggression. This was consistent in findings of previous studies, stating that boys showed more overt aggression than did girls. However, gender difference in relational aggression was not significant. The results of this study provide information how reliable and valid measures are to researchers aiming to conduct a comparative cultural study involving Korea. In the future, relational aggression will need to be assessed from multiple informants such as peers, teachers, parents, and observers.

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Jul 2015
<![CDATA[Dynamics of Intergroup Relations among Indonesian Youth]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

Rayini Dahesihsari   Dorien Kartikawangi   Clara R. P. Ajisuksmo   Kasdin Sihotang   and Juliana Murniati   

The richness of social, cultural and religious diversity of Indonesia is a unique and relevant context for stimulating intergroup relationships. In such context, maintaining social harmony is a challenge because group identity is easily salient. This study aims to picture intergroup relationships among Indonesian youth, who will take main roles on the future of this country. They are also potential change agents for communities. Specifically, this study explores and identifies salient social, cultural and religion group categorization among college students in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study examines the level of outgroup trust and the level of accommodative communication practicing in interaction with members of outgroup. This study also pays a particular attention on exploring the role models for Indonesian youth in communication. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches are implemented using questionnaires and focus group discussions. 1197 college students from five universities in four big cities in Indonesia are participated. The findings show that the group categories salient are religion, ethnicity, and clan/family memberships. This indicates that strong group identity is highly likely to be built mainly based on those categorizations, which would be used as a basis to make distinction who belongs to the ingroup and the outgroup. The findings also identify the low of outgroup trust among the participants, particularly on benevolence dimension. The findings are in line with the assumption that less positive evaluation, specifically on affective basis tend to be given to people from different group identity. Furthermore, participants also tend to avoid interaction with outgroups, and to express such a non-accommodative communication in interaction with members of outgroups. Almost thirty percent of the participants does not have role models in communication may take role on the results. They do not have sufficient references to communicating accommodatively with members of outgroups. While a few participants have an attitude of openness to differences, most of them appear reluctant to have intensive interaction with members of outgroups due to negative anticipation and feeling uncomfortable in dealing with outgroups. The implication from this study is that the context of diversity in Indonesia needs to be managed, particularly for the young generation, so the negative impact of low of outgroup trust and less positive communication with members of outgroups could be minimized.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[The Relationship between Intra/Extra-familial Childhood Sexual Abuse and Survivors' Mental Health]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

Magnolia Bahle Ngcobo-Sithole   

The impact of intra-familial sexual abuse and extra-familial sexual abuse on children is the focus of this article. Intra-familial childhood sexual abuse is a common occurrence within the African population but its impact is not reported. A sample of sexually abused children referred for psychological intervention in a general hospital in South Africa was assessed for symptoms of depression, PTSD, and cognitive deficits. The results showed that while most of the children present with subclinical symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder they scored below average on most tests of cognitive functioning. Psychological theories are used to conceptualize the results.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[Peer Mentoring Module: The Effect of an Intervention of Academic Mentoring Program towards Motivation and Self-esteem among Foundation Students in Malaysia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

Haizan Taha   Fauziah Hanim   Mastura Johar   and Mardian Shah   

Academic mentoring program between peer mentors and mentees is believed to be as part of the guidance and counselling practice to enhance the development of education field. This program practiced Peer Mentoring Module (PMM) for peer mentors with skills namely: interpersonal relationship, communication, motivation, empathy and emotional stability. The purpose of this research is to identify the effectiveness of PMM on the treatment of students' motivation and self-esteem among foundation students in a private University in Malaysia. Forty subjects (mentees) with CGPA < 2.00 points were tutored by forty trained mentors. A pretest-posttest control research design was utilized to look at the difference of the level of motivation and self-esteem of the students (mentees) with low achievement (CGPA below 2.00 points). Two types of instruments are used in this study; Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) and Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). The subjects were examined at week one for pre-test and post-test at week ten. Statistical analysis included (group x time) measures t-test to determine between and within group mean differences. The overall findings support the hypothesis that PMM intervention to train peer mentors in Mentoring Program shows positive effects on increasing the level of motivation and general self-esteem of mentees. After 10 weeks during the post-test, there was statistically improved in RSE and AGQ scores (p < 0.05). The research outcome may help researchers to proof that PMM through academic mentoring program can increase the attitude and confidence of the mentees. Therefore, a more positive learning perspective among the low achievers will be one of the important aspects in implementing the guidance and counselling practice in academic mentoring.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[Effect of Low Intensity Dance Exercise: Hostility, Anxiety and Depression among Sedentary Overweight Women in Malaysia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

Mastura Johar   Mardian Shah   and Haizan Taha   

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of a 12-week low intensity dance exercise intervention in the treatment of hostility subscale, anxiety subscale and depression subscale among overweight women working in Malaysia in an attempt of Sports for all. Forty subjects were recruited from both government and private sectors in Malaysia. Subjects were between the ages of 40 and 55 years, who have had a diagnosis of total stress score above the mean, were not enrolled in any exercise program or were physically inactive over the period of one year (sedentary) overweight (Body Mass Index above 25) and have had a cardiovascular endurance score below the mean. Subjects were randomly assigned to a 12-week low intensity dance exercise of "Aero mass", an intervention or a conventional aerobics dance exercise as the control group. A pretest-posttest control research design was utilized. Both groups met for 50 minutes, three times a week (36 sessions). The Transactional Approach Multidimensional (Derogatis Stress Profile) examined the hostility, anxiety and depression response sub-scale. Statistical analysis included (group x time) repeated measures ANOVA to determine between and within group mean differences. The hypotheses of the study received significant support. There were statistically significant differences between*group effect (between treatment and control groups) on the combined dependent variables: F (4, 35) = 20.79, p < .01, eta square = .790. An inspection of the mean scores indicated that treatment group reported an improvement for Hostility sub-scale (M = 47.70, SD = 3.34), Anxiety sub-scale (M = 35.65, SD = 3.64) and for Depression sub-scale (M = 35.65, SD = 2.58). It is concluded that low intensity dance therapy exercise intervention of "Aero mass" had contributed greatly to the positive findings concerning physical health and psychological well-being among overweight women in Malaysia.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp) Used, and it's Relationship with the University Students Contact with their Families in Saudi Arabia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

Saleh Ibrahim Alsanie   

Social media an important component of modern people lives of contemporary societies, and on the point of particular young people. The aim of the present research to study the relationship of the use of social media the following social media: WhatsApp, Twitter and Facebook, continuing university students with their families. The sample consisted of students from the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University in Riyadh, of the four departments' in which the study Bachelor until eighth level, and the total sample 658 students from the departments: psychology, sociology, geography and history. And the used tool of The researcher is composed of three axes: the first axis of public data, and the second axis, means of communication: Includes used of social media and the time you spend with them daily, and the third axis of relationship and social media to communicate with the family: Includes ten phrases dealing with the impact of social media on the continuing student with his family. Extraction was ratified arbitrators and internal consistency, as a way to extract stability, and got good rates. The most important results was: 1) having a negative relationship between the use of statistically significant means of social communication and the relationship of students with their families. 2) the lack of impact on the type of scientific department on social media used. 3) time spent on the means of communication: the time came less than an hour the first rank (37.6%) of WhatsApp, and (54.4%) of Twitter, and (76.5%) for Facebook. 4) in the spread of means was ranked first way WhatsApp in use (93.4%) and then Twitter (46.4%) and Facebook (36.8%). The researcher concluded discussed a set of recommendations derived from the search results.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[Psychological Changes During Puberty - Adolescent School Girls]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  3  

M. Reena   

Adolescence is a period when physical growth and maturation are accompanied by mental and psychological development. Pubertal timing was associated with different symptoms than pubertal status or age. Puberty seems to affect girls more negatively than boys. Stage of pubertal development rather than chronological age has been reported as a risk factor for eating disorders, depression and anxiety. Many mental disorders such as major depression certain anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance use disorders increase in prevalence during adolescence. Puberty includes major hormonal changes that are likely to contribute for example to both depressive affect and aggression. WHO estimate shows that up to 20 per cent adolescent have one or more mental or behavioural problems. Studies conducted in different parts of the world show that prevalence of behavioural and emotional problems in adolescents ranges from 16.5 per cent to 40.8 per cent and in India it is in the range of 13.7 per cent to 50 per cent as adolescents form one fifth of India's population. The study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. Physical as well as psychological changes during adolescence create a state of physiological stress that must be coped with. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems, the association between socio-environmental factors was also examined.

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May 2015
<![CDATA[Tool for Assessing Responsibility-based Education (TARE) 2.0: Instrument Revisions, Inter-rater Reliability, and Correlations between Observed Teaching Strategies and Student Behaviors]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  2  

Amparo Escartí   Paul M. Wright   Carmina Pascual   and Melchor Gutiérrez   

Although the original Tool for Assessing Responsibility-based Education (TARE) has proven useful in several studies, it has limitations. The three-fold purpose of this article is to present a revised version of the TARE including a new section to measure students′ behaviors, analyze the inter-rater reliability of the instrument, and assess the relationships between results of teacher and student observations. Data from 120 3-minute intervals of instructional time in physical education and general education lessons were analyzed. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) in conjunction with Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) analyses was conducted to assess the inter-rater reliability of the teacher observation section and the student observation section of the TARE 2.0. Additionally, differential analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients were carried out. Findings indicate the various categories in the teacher and student observation sections have a high degree of inter-rater reliability and that there are many significant positive correlations between the two.

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Mar 2015
<![CDATA[Mental Health Status of Infertile Women in Bangladesh]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  2  

Asoke Kumar Saha   Kazi Saifuddin   Fatema-Tu-Zohra Binte Zaman   and Nishat Jahan Nisha   

Special attention has been paid to psychological health of infertile women during the last few years (Domar [1]. Therefore, the present study was conducted to find out the differences in the mental health among fertile and infertile women. The study is conducted to come across the level of difference in mental health between fertile and infertile women. In order to measure the dependent variable, the investigators used Bengali version of Goldberg’s mental health scale. A simple t-test was used to analysis the data collected from 50 respondents. The results revealed that infertile women have lower mental health score than fertile women which proved the formulated hypothesis. The results are also discussed in the context of personal mental health and happiness in the social paradigm of Bangladesh.

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Mar 2015
<![CDATA[The Relationships between Conflict Management Styles, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Workers in Public and Private Sectors]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  2  

Khaled Ahmed Galal Ahmed   

Conflict is inevitable in all living organisms, it is a natural phenomenon and social occur among humans wherever and when they are. There is evidence of existence of conflict since the beginning of the creation of what happened between Adam’s Son Cain and Abel, and ended up killing someone. The study aimed to investigate relationships between styles of managing conflicts, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a sample of private, and public organizations. The study conducted on a sample of (329) persons, 198 (60.2%) public organization who are employees of a university and private sector sample of 131 (39.8%) workers in different industrial factories. Used conflict management styles questionnaire prepared by the researcher, besides job satisfaction and organizational commitment. MANOVA statistics such as the differences between the two groups (private, public), also, differences between two groups correlation coefficients. The results showed significant differences between the two groups on the style of avoidance, there are no significant differences in satisfaction and organizational commitment. The Results of the study also showed a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a private sector sample only. It also found significant relationships between conflict management styles and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment, in public sample than private sector sample. Finally, there were differences between correlation coefficients between conflict management styles showed job satisfaction, organizational commitment, implications of the study for future research, as well as practical implications.

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Mar 2015
<![CDATA[Discrepancies in Parents-Adolescents Conflicts across Gender: A Step Forward in Validation of Conflict Behavior Questionnaire-44]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  2  

Najda Rizwan Khan   Jamil A. Malik   and Anila Kamal   

The research is aimed to test construct validity of Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ-44) using confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, potential gender invariance is tested as a result of item sensitivity of scale. Following the back translation method, data of 494 adolescents (girls=203, boys=291) was collected from different institutes of Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Sample age ranged 11-23 years with Mean age ±SD (19.25, ±2.33 years). Construct validation was tested by conducting confirmatory factor analysis using Mplus Version 6.12. Results presented good model fit of Conflict Behavior Questionnaire-44 for a two components model and all items loaded well on their respective scales. Cronbach's Alpha of the two components (i.e., .73 and 89) suggested that scales are reliable. Significant positive bivariate correlation with issue check list (i.e., r=.24; and r=.26, p<.01, for Appraisal of parents, and Appraisal of dyads respectively) evidenced the convergent validity whereas significant negative bivariate correlation with Authoritative Father (i.e., r=-.39, and r=-.34; p<.01) and Authoritative Mother (i.e., r=-.34, and r=-.37; p<.01 ) for Appraisal of parents, and Appraisal of dyads respectively evidenced criterion related validity of CBQ-44 adolescent version. Though CFA across gender also showed good fit of the model to the data (i.e., χ2(df)= 1919.86 (1842), CFI=.95, TLI=.94, and RMSEA=.02) equality constraints for all parameters in a step by step approach resulted in a significant model fit decrease. Our findings support the two component model of CBQ-44 adolescent version yet suggest that the items on the instrument are not equally sensitive for male and female adolescent.

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Mar 2015
<![CDATA[Achievement in University Engineering Studies: A Case for Resilience and Self -efficacy]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  2  

Duduzile Mkhize   

The prevalent high failure rate among the nontraditional black university students, in particular, those who attempt engineering studies has generated research to resolve this problem. A variety of factors leading to this have been cited by research. Impoverished backgrounds which means learners are stuck in poorly resourced backgrounds and schools seems to be the leading factor as this has a ripple effect on a number of other achievement variables. However, there is a gap on research that explores factors underpinning successful cases. Hence, this paper is based on the exploration of a successful engineering student from abject poverty. Resilience and self-efficacy were found to be the pertinent factors that led to achievement in engineering. Self-efficacy based interventions and therapies have served clinical and medical psychology very well. The paper concludes by proposing further exploration of self-efficacy in tandem with resilience as an alternative to improve achievement for black engineering students.

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Mar 2015
<![CDATA[Self-reports and Observer Reports as Data Generation Methods: An Assessment of Issues of Both Methods]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  1  

Mitchell Abernethy   

Data collection through the self-report method can allow one to acquire both a different type and quality of information when compared to acquiring the information through the observer report method; however nor the observation or self-report processes are perfect data collection methods. When designing a study it is important to know when to use one over the other. By understanding how the data is collected in both of these processes and the problems associated with either process one can make an informed decision as to when to use one over the other. Additionally, though the use of only one method can be a practical choice the use of both methods is the better choice and should be used when it can. It should be noted that there are many problems and biases that need to be controlled for in these methods and there are other ways in which they can be controlled for beyond what is covered, however, this paper will be limited to the stated biases and control methods. Throughout my involvement in ‘The Fire Starter Study' I have come to understand the process of how these methods are conducted and why they are conducted the way they are.

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Jan 2015
<![CDATA[Stress and its Triggers of Early Adolescents - Institution and Gender Specific Differences]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  1  

Maraichelvi AK   

Early adolescence in their middle school are said to pass through a tumultuous developmental period and are considered to be more vulnerable to stress. The present study was undertaken with the objective of appraising the stress level and stress triggers of middle school students and analyse the institution and gender specific differences. The study adopted survey research by formulating a situation- based checklist. Boys responding to the survey reported higher mean score on stress and that the students enrolled in government schools were more stressed than private school students. Also it was observed that except for the trigger – teacher, all other riggers has got a significant interaction effect between the type of the school and gender of the selected adolescents. The overall finding gives a feeling of apprehension for the society in general and educators, researchers and policy makers in particular to initiate urgent strategies to overcome this fiery issue.

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Jan 2015
<![CDATA[Perceived Trauma and Mental Health among Refugees in India]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  1  

Akbar Hussain   and Monu Lal Sharma   

Refugees who leave their country because of fear of violence or starvation usually had extreme traumatic experiences which affect their mental health immensely. Since limited researches are available on the psychological problems of refugees present study attempted to assess the traumatic experiences and mental health status of refugees. The study was conducted on 60 refugees from Myanmar staying in India for the last three years. To assess the extent of their traumatic experiences post-traumatic stress disorder checklist was used. Besides that a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was also administered to assess their mental health status. Findings showed substantial traumatic experience and poor mental health of the refugees in general. Significant difference between males and females were obtained in traumatic experiences and status of mental health. However, mixed results were obtained for the two age groups of both the genders on traumatic experience and mental health. Further, significant correlations were also found between the two variables.

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Jan 2015
<![CDATA[The Role of Episodic Buffer in Episodic Future Thinking]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  3  Number  1  

Rumana Ferdousi Siddique   Asheek Mohammad Shimul   Alim Ul Gias   Mohayeminul Islam   and Shah Mostafa Khaled   

Present research attempted to see the role performed by episodic buffer in the generation of future thinking by making episodic buffer engage in dual task while generating future thoughts. Hypothesis anticipated differences in response accuracy and required time of response. Participants performed episodic buffer task of verbal-spatial binding while retrieving events of past and constructing events of future. While comparing past and future retrieval, variances in response accuracy and reaction time was not evident but memory specificity appeared noteworthy. In addition, participants' observer or third person perspective facilitated to generate more specific memory which is inconsistent with previous researches [20] [21] [23] that lead to the necessity of more extensive enquiries. As concerns episodic buffer, present study suggests no further significant contribution of buffer in future thinking than thinking about the past.

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Jan 2015
<![CDATA[Interpersonal Distances are the Consequence of the Self-organization of Human Spatial Behavior: A Theoretical Study Based on Synergetics]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  9  

T. D. Frank   

It is well documented that humans position themselves at preferred distances with respect to others. The distances characterizing human spatial behavior are known to depend on the social interactions between the actors and their dyadic partners. A quantitative model that predicts interpersonal distances and is based on the concept of the self-organization of human spatial behavior has been missing in the literature. In the present study such a model is derived within the framework of synergetics, a theory of self-organization. The model corresponds to an evolution equation for the variations of interpersonal distance over time. In line with the equilibrium point hypothesis of interpersonal distances discussed in the literature, preferred distances are represented by the fixed points of the proposed evolution equation. In this context, it is argued that the adjustment of an actor from a personal to an intimate interpersonal distance can be considered as a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. As a by-product of the proposed theoretical approach, the notion is supported that interpersonal distances are body-scaled.

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Dec 2014
<![CDATA[The Impact of Internet Addiction on Life Satisfaction and Life Engagement in Young Adults]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  9  

Ishrat Shahnaz   and A. K. M. Rezaul Karim   

This study examined the impact of Internet addiction (IA) on life satisfaction and life engagement in young adults. A total of 210 University students participated in the study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the model was significant and contributes 8% of the variance in life satisfaction (Adjusted R2=.080, p<.001) and 2.8% of the variance in life engagement (Adjusted R2=.028, p<.05). Unstandardized regression coefficient (B) indicates that one unit increase in raw score of Internet addiction leads to .168 unit decrease in raw score of life satisfaction (B=-.168, p<.001) and .066 unit decrease in raw score of life engagement (B=-.066, p<.05). Means and standard deviations of the scores on IA and its dimensions showed that the most commonly given purposes of Internet are online discussion, adult chatting, online gaming, chatting, cyber affair and watching pornography. Means and standard deviations of the scores on IA and its dimensions across different types of social networking sites further indicate that people who frequently participate in skype, twitter and facebook have relatively higher IA score. Correlations of different aspects of Internet use with major variables indicate significant and positive correlations of Internet use with IA, neglect of duty and virtual fantasies. Implications of the findings for theory, research and practice are discussed.

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Dec 2014
<![CDATA[Factor Structure for Organizational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Org) in Bangladeshi Culture]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  9  

Mahmudul Hasan Sagar   A. K .M. Rezaul Karim   and Naima Nigar   

The importance of the organizational police stress research has increased in recent times. One important measure of organizational police stress is the Organizational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Org; was McCreary & Thompson, 2006). The purpose of the present study was to translate the measure into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi Culture. A total of 210 police officers participated in this survey. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 160 participants (who provided complete responses) identified four factor structures for PSQ-Org with 14 items. The four factors for PSQ-Org namely ‘Poor management and bureaucracy', ‘Lack of manpower and resources', ‘Feelings of excessive duty and being supervised' and ‘Lack of leisure time and negative evaluations' together explained 55.14% of the total variance. The PSQ-Org showed moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α =.80 for PSQ-Org; and .57 to .66 for its factors) strong translation validity and convergent validity. Thus, the Bangla version PSQ-Org appears to be a valid and reliable measure that can be used for further research in Bangladesh.

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Dec 2014
<![CDATA[Age and Metamemory: Do Older Adults Perform Poorly?]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  8  

Md. Zayeed Bin Alam   and Asheek Mohammad Shimul   

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there is any age effect on metamemory judgments i.e. Judgment-of-learning (JOL) and Feeling-of-knowing (FOK). Based on previous findings it was hypothesized that age would only affect FOK resolution not JOL. Twenty younger adults and twenty older adults participated in this study under within subject design. The order of the FOK and JOL tasks were counterbalanced across participants. For both tasks, the first phase was the study phase and they studied twenty different Bangla word pairs in each task. The second phase was the judgment phase for JOL task and recall phase for the FOK task. The third phase was just opposite; recall for JOL and judgment for FOK. The last phase was recognition for both tasks. Results indicate no significant age effect on both recall performance [t(38) = 0.728, p> 0.05 for JOL task, t(38) = 1.195, p>0.05 for FOK task] and recognition performance [t(38) =0.366, p>0.05 for JOL task, t(38) = -0.178, p>0.05 for FOK task]. It also indicates no significant age effects on judgment accuracy [F(1,38) = 0.156, p>0 .05]. The results have been discussed in the light of recent developments in metamemory research.

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Oct 2014
<![CDATA[Bad Hair Day? The Role of Self-consciousness on Coping with Embarrassing Service Encounters]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  8  

Pamela M. H. Kwok   and Alison E. Lloyd   

The paper studies the importance of self-consciousness (public and private) on the types of coping strategy deployed in the face of an embarrassing service encounter. Using a quasi-experimental design, results indicate that in individuals high on public self-consciousness are more likely to engage in active coping in comparison to their low public self-consciousness counterparts. Findings also show that avoidance coping strategy impinges on the service encounter and represent an important opportunity for firms to offer more ways to encourage customers to voice out their dissatisfaction with service failure. The work described in this conference paper was fully funded by a grant from the College of Professional and Continuing Education, an affiliate of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

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Oct 2014
<![CDATA[An Introduction to the Aesthetic Precognition: Threat or Opportunity for Contemporary Art?]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  8  

Giuseppe Galetta   

This paper presents some findings of an ongoing experiment on the Beauty perception and aesthetic appreciation of the artworks, based for the first time on the use the most popular social network: Facebook. Exploiting the system of "like" and "share", on which Facebook is based, thousands of artwork images were submitted to a sample of over 10,000 users worldwide. Through the metrics analysis related to the aesthetic preferences expressed by the users, it was observed they are inclined to react the same way towards certain visual stimuli coming from artwork images: specific compositional characteristics of the artworks are able to influence the aesthetic preferences of the viewers towards some artworks rather than others. The steady repetition of aesthetic preferences related to same compositional elements present in the artworks allowed to predict the subsequent aesthetic choices by the viewers towards not yet posted artworks. We identified some of these responsive elements, which would be able to activate the Beauty recognition and the Aesthetic Pleasure in the perceivers. In this way it would be possible to develop an Aesthetic Algorithm able to identify the share of Beauty required to activate the Aesthetic Pleasure, by introducing specific responsive elements in the artworks with the aim of predicting, and also predetermining, the viewers reactions. The knowledge of the perceptual mechanisms capable of activating the Aesthetic Pleasure might allow to predict and influence beforehand the aesthetic preferences of viewers toward the artworks, with many implications for the current Art Market. We described this predictive analysis of aesthetic appreciation of the viewers as Aesthetic Precognition.

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Oct 2014
<![CDATA[The Bangla Version of the Miller Social Intimacy Scale: An Exploratory Study]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  8  

Naima Nigar   A. K. M. Rezaul Karim   and Mahmudul Hasan Sagar   

Intimacy is an important component of interpersonal relationship. The Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS) was developed (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982) to measure social intimacy, to quantify the degree of emotional closeness a person felt toward another person. The aim of this study was to translate the MSIS into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture. Data were collected from 177 university students (77 females and 100 males) using survey method. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 172 participants (who provided complete responses) identified a two factor structure of the MSIS with 12 items. The Two factors namely ‘Frequency' of intimate contact, and ‘Intensity' of intimate relations together explained 49.20% of the total variance. The MSIS and its factors showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .83 for the MSIS, .75, for ‘Frequency' dimension and .79 for ‘Intensity' dimension), strong convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the Bangla version MSIS appears to be valid and reliable and therefore can be used in further research on interpersonal relationship of the people in Bangladesh.

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Oct 2014
<![CDATA[Multistable Perception in Schizophrenia: A Model-based Analysis via Coarse-grained Order Parameter Dynamics and a Comment on the 4th Law]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  7  

T. D. Frank   

The synergetic computer that has originally been developed as an algorithm for pattern recognition has also been used in the life sciences as a model for various self-organizing perceptual processes. Coarse-graining of the order parameter equations of the synergetic computer is discussed for sets of to-be-perceived patterns that vary in the degree to which they can be distinguished from each other. Coarse-gaining is exploited to conduct a model-based analysis on literature data of multistable perception under schizophrenia as tested in motion-induced blindness (MIB) experiments. The analysis not only supports earlier suggestions that schizophrenia reduces the occurrence frequency of the MIB effect but also suggests that the perceptual system of schizophrenia patients is characterized by a greater degree of asymmetry.

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Aug 2014
<![CDATA[Parent, Peer and Media Effect on the Perception of Body Image in Preadolescent Girls and Boys]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  7  

Bextiyar Aliyev   and Abdullah Türkmen   

The goal of this study was to begin to determine how parent, peer and media influences on the perception of body image of preadolescent girls and boys in Rize. The research was carried total 70 students of Mehmet AkifErsoy middle school . Surveys were collected and analyzed in the statistics department using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Results indicated peers had the largest negative influence (X 1.60/3.0) and media had the largest positive influence (X 2.12/3.0) for scale-response. Results also revealed the higher the positive influence, the higher positive self-image. As one increases positively the other will increase positively. The correlation between parents, peers, and media and body image was found to be significant, P < .000 < α = .05. A correlation coefficient of .606/1.0 revealed a moderate to strong correlation. Results also indicated the preadolescent surveyed had a lower reported body image score than the influence from parents, peers, and media together. Results should be used by health educators to develop educational classes, programs that focus on the impact from parent, peer, and media influences on the perception of body image. The present study provides more insight and new trends in data, to the understanding of the onset of body image development in preadolescent.

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Aug 2014
<![CDATA[The Role of Human Function in Defining Happiness]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  7  

Leria Ileana Boro?   

In this paper I argue that the Aristotelian concept of “human function” is at the heart of understanding the moral concept of “happiness” (ε?δαιμον?α). There are many controversies related to Aristotle’s account on happiness. My statement is that we can gain a better insight on happiness by reference to “human function” (τ??ργοντο??νθρ?που), provided that we understand what the philosopher meant by this latter concept. According to Aristotle, happiness is the highest good for humans and the human good is a proper exercise of the human function. Thus, the understanding of happiness relies on the understanding of human function, because human good and perfection depend, in Aristotle’s account, on the proper exercise of this function. Aristotle gives a complex account on reason, but in the tenth book of Nicomachean Ethics he seems to support an intellectualist view on happiness, i.e. a view which only makes reference to the activity in accordance with the virtue appropriate to the most elevated part of our soul. In other words, contemplation would equal happiness. However, such a narrow view would contradict Aristotle’s comprehensivist approach in the first book of Nicomachean Ethics. An intellectualist account would be in contradiction with Aristotle’s definition of eudaimonia from the first book of Nicomachean Ethics. Contemplation alone is not happiness, but it is a special type of happy life. However, happiness comprises other “goods” as well, since the human function refers to the complex part of the soul which is reason.

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Aug 2014
<![CDATA[A Model of Organizational Cultures Predictive of Wellbeing: From the Organization of Work to Broader Social]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  7  

Claudio Palumbo   

A model of organizational cultures that for many years explained effectively the organizational behavior is that of the Italian authors Bellotto & Trentini (1989). This model is particularly suited to the Italian organizational and social reality and continues to implement its descriptive and explanatory capability. The four cultures derived from the model are characterized by well-defined variables for each culture, and which can be made operational. That also enables you to apply the method of quantitative research as well as the more usual method of qualitative analysis. The model also expresses specific figures of trainers in the classroom for every type of culture and, ultimately, these cultures were made in connection with the model of ‘organizational pathologies’ of Kets de Vries& Miller (1992). In this regard, the most frequent combination of cultures and the different weight which they assume within the same organization are able to provide important signals of the level of organizational wellbeing.

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Aug 2014
<![CDATA[Identification and Assessment of Children with Dyslexia in Allahabad City]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  6  

Shadab Siddqui   and Nishi Tripathi   

The survey method was adopted for the present study. The investigation was conducted in different schools of Allahabad district including five English medium schools and five Hindi medium schools with respect to the identification and assessment of children with reading related problems (dyslexia). The sample comprised of the teachers teaching English language to identify the children having reading related problems (dyslexia) from 2nd to 8th standards in English and Hindi medium schools. The following tools used for data analysis were general information Problem checklist- teacher report from A and B (Tripathi and Kar, 2008). Specific information NIMHANS index of learning disability (Kapur et al. 1991) Dyslexia was found higher in children of Hindi medium schools from 2nd to 8th standards, as compared to English medium schools from 2nd to 8th standards, as perceived by the teachers. NIMHANS index of specific learning disability test in words and comprehension reading were found in decreasing order in 2nd to 8th standard in English medium schools and 3rd to 7th standard in Hindi medium schools.. Total number of 59 Children in English Medium Schools and 42 Children in Hindi Medium Schools in words reading and comprehension reading in (NIMHANS) index of specific learning disability test were found having. reading related problems (dyslexia).

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Jun 2014
<![CDATA[Emotional Reactions of Azerbaijani Young Peoples to Media Commercials and its Impact on Their Attitudinal Developments]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  6  

Baxtiyar Aliyev   and Abdullah Türkmen   

In this media saturated world which is lived in today, Adolescents are bombarded by a multitude of advertisement. The present study utilized the theories of flow, mindfulness, and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore which factors may influence the emotions and attitudes processing of advertisements by students who participated in a two-week media education curriculum. This study attempted to answer the question of whether or not a media education curriculum focused on advertising had an effect on students’ emotions and attitudes. A mixed method design was used to obtain data regarding participant emotional responses to media content and attitudinal to process advertisements. This study surveyed girls and boys ages 12 to 14 years who live in Baku, Azerbaijan. A total of 244 participant forms were collected during the two-week surveying period. Participants in the experimental condition participated in 18 fifty-minute lessons over a two week period. T-test, Friedman test and Pearson correlation were used to analyze data. The result shows that there is considerable variance among emotions. Emotion of much amount is Active and emotion of fewer amounts is Suspicious. In addition, there is no significant relation between React emotionally and Attitude variable and Commercials impact variable.

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Jun 2014
<![CDATA[The Definition of Magical Thinking: Basic Aspects and Possible Clinical Implications]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  6  

José Henrique Rocha Dias Correia   

One possible definition of what is magical thinking will be attempted with an emphasis on non-causality, on Jungian synchronicity theory, on the presentation of unpublished experimentation with one oracle, plus the Freudian implications on the matter, and how all this can have a bearing on the understanding of the concept of magical thinking itself and, indirectly, on possible new modes of psychotherapy already based on the few reports that have been published to this end so far.

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Jun 2014
<![CDATA[Substance Abuse Amongst High School Learners in Rural Communities]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  6  

Kholofelo Mothibi   

Substance abuse amongst high school students in South Africa is of great national concern. With the change in the government and its stance on democracy, a National Strategic Action Plan (NSAP) for the prevention of substance abuse among the youth in the country was developed by the South African Alliance of Prevention of Substance Abuse (SAAPA) in 1999. The aim of the SAAPA is to encourage networking amongst all organizations, both government and civil society, concerned with substance abuse in South Africa. Unfortunately this organization has not yet started functioning in most rural communities including Botlokoa (Eisleben Village).Using a sample (N=30) of learners who abuse substances in high schools at Eisleben Village this paper aims to explore the factors contributing to substance abuse among high school learners. The incidents and effects of substance abuse will be highlighted. The paper will further highlight substance abuse and its relation to crime.

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Jun 2014
<![CDATA[The Phenomenology of Dreams in the Viewpoints from Freud, from Jung and from Boss, Plus One New Aspect]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  5  

José Henrique Rocha Dias Correia   

Dream analysis has been considered as an important part of psycotherapy in Psychoanalysis, Analytical Psychology and Daseinanalysis. In this article I reviewed the basis belonging to the three original and specific theories for dream analysis and interpretation from Freud, Jung and Boss. The functioning of each theory will be illustrated by means of the analysis and interpretation of one typical and famous dream of the correspondent literature. The new conclusion has been that dreaming apparently adjusts itself to the theory that will be used to analyze and interpret the dreams.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[Key Names and Attributes in the Qur’ān to Identify Human Essence]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  5  

Recep Dogan   

With the abilities and great capacity human kind has unique position in the universe and they have potential to be better than any other created beings. There is no doubt that what makes them unique and superior is that they can represent the names and attributes of God and through this capacity they are capable to understand God better than any other beings. Through examining the attributes of mankind, one may have an idea about the attributes of God. Although one’s attributes are limited and dependent, God is eternal and independent. Nevertheless there is a relationship between God and his servants in terms of representing Him in the human dimension. God can see, hear, know etc. everything and in order to understand these facts, human beings compare their seeing, hearing, knowledge etc. to God and have an idea about the Eternal One based on their limited abilities. The names and attributes which are used to define God are also used for human kind to show them their value and remind them of their responsibilities. God acknowledges human kind as capable by defining them with these names. Human thought gives meaning to the names of God and also discuss whether these names are suitable to name God. When doing this, they benefit from their own experiences.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[The Switching Effect Involving the Affective System in Chinese Affective Concept Processing]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  5  

Liusheng Wang   and Jing Li   

The embodied cognition hypothesis holds the view that concepts are not only grounded in perceptions and actions, but are also important in affective (introspective) experiences. This research explores the switching effect involving affective systems in Chinese affective concept processing. The current study employed a 2×2×2 within-subject experiment with modality context (different vs. same), modality type of property (sensory vs. affective), and valence of word (positive vs. negative) as the independent variables, with reaction time as the dependent variable. Thirty-nine Chinese female college students were required to conduct a property verification task. The results showed a switching effect between verifying sensory properties of concepts and verifying affective properties of concepts, wherein participants responded more slowly to targets preceded by different modality context trials than those preceded by the same modality context trials. These results provide empirical evidence for the embodied cognition of concepts.

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May 2014
<![CDATA[Brain Trauma and the Energy Model: Emergence of a New Paradigm]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  4  

Dean J. Hugie   

Neuroscience is calling for more research to further our understanding of brain trauma and rehabilitation. Further, Dr. Steven Cramer, Department of Neurology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California while writing on behalf of the 2009 task force notes," major advances in the understanding of neuroplasticity haveto date, yielded few established interventions". The purpose of this paper is two- fold: 1) to present an overview of the energy model as outlined within energy psychology and 2) to discuss trauma, neuroplasticity and chronic trauma encephalopathy from the perspective of an emerging evidenced based paradigm, the energy model.

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Apr 2014
<![CDATA[Age of Onset of Physical Abuse: Implications for Adult Anger and Aggression]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  4  

Stephanie D. Carter   Niki L. Crabtree   James Epps   and Ann-Marie Roberts-Davis   

This study examines the impact the age of onset of physical abuse has on the expression of anger and aggression in adulthood. The Emotional and Physical Abuse Questionnaire (EPAB), State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Emotional Response Scenarios (ERS), and a demographics questionnaire were given to 229 undergraduate psychology students. Age of onset of abuse does predict higher levels of Trait Angry Temperament and Anger Expression Out in those whose abuse began as a child than for those whose abuse began in adolescence/ adulthood or those not abused. Further, it was determined that Hostile Attributional Bias moderated the relationship between age of onset of abuse and both Trait Angry Temperament and Anger Expression Out. The implications for the Social Information Processing theory of anger and aggression and potential therapeutic use of these findings are discussed.

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Apr 2014
<![CDATA[Metric Characteristics of the Santa Barbara Healthy Start Questionnaire Applied to Preschool Children in Croatia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  3  

Jo?ko Sindik   

The main aim of this study was to determine the applicability of Santa Barbara Healthy Start questionnaire for preschool teachers working in Croatia. Intentional sample of all preschool children who are obliged to enroll in elementary school in the following school year from teaching groups in Kindergarten ‘Trnoruzica’ in Zagreb was examined. The metric characteristics of the Santa Barbara Healthy Start questionnaire for educators were identified. Average results are higher, compared with the U.S. population, which was expected, since children in Croatia start school a year later. Adjusted to the population of Croatian children, the questionnaire showed good psychometric characteristics, primarily reliability. Single Factor solution in our terms and conditions and for older children seems more appropriate than triple factorial one. Results from the questionnaire were significantly and positively correlated with other measuring instruments, aimed for assessing readiness for school.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Changing Perceptions of Disadvantage - A Multi-cultural Both-ways Exchange Program]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  3  

Michael Hicks   Adrian Hendry   and Mary Morris   

The goal of Indigenous children living on a community in the Tiwi Islands is neither to get an education nor to be employed – it is to get the dole and remain trapped in a lifestyle of poverty and disadvantage. There is no notional idea of breaking this cycle – more a resignation of its inevitability – the consequence being a continuation of the less than acceptable educational, health, social and demographic indicators for these children. Evidence clearly demonstrates that "being poor and unemployed statistically lowers self-esteem and increases illness, death and the likelihood of arrest and imprisonment just as poor health and limited educational achievements affect employability". The current paper articulates some of the issues we identified when working with Indigenous people and proposes one option to challenge the status quo using an innovative, multi-cultural, both-ways program of community development.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Family Influences during Childhood on African American Women’s Sexual Behavior during Young Adulthood]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  3  

Keisha Carr Paxton   Naomi M. Hall   and Edtna Bogarin   

The present study examined family influences during childhood on young adult sexual risk behavior. Prior research suggests that parental responsiveness and communication with adolescents about sexuality delays sexual activity and prevents risky behavior. One hundred twenty four African American women ages 18 to 25, inclusive, completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, childhood health influences, and other sociodemographic information. The results reveal that mothers are a primary influence on sexual behavior in adulthood, as measured by acquisition of a sexually transmitted infection. The results of this study underscore the importance of mother-daughter communication about sex during childhood and adolescence and have implications for sexual health interventions.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[The Relationship between Relaxation Techniques and Sport Performance]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  3  

Vincent A. Parnabas   Yahaya Mahamood   Julinamary Parnabas   and Nagoor Meera Abdullah   

Anxiety, as negative emotion, affects perceptions in sports competitions, where a large majority of athletes consider anxiety to be debilitative towards performance, which may result in decreases in performance. Several researches on anxiety among athletes indicated that athletes take drugs to combat anxiety and enhance performance. There are many researches indicating that relaxation techniques benefits athletes by enhancing self-confidence, concentration, performance, reducing anxiety and stress, blood pressure as well as muscle tense. The aim of this research was to find the correlation between different kinds of relaxation techniques and sports performance. The sample consisted of 122 athletes. The sample was drawn from athletes who competed in Sports between University (MASUM). The Questionnaire of Imagery, The Questionnaire of Meditation, The Questionnaire of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and The Questionnaire of Techniques of Breathing, was used in this study. Besides that, Sports Performance Questionnaire also has been used in this study to correlate the relationship between the relaxation techniques and performance of athletes. The result showed that there are positive correlation between imagery and sports performance, meditation and sports performance, progressive muscle relaxation and sports performance, breathing techniques and sports performance. Sport psychologist and coaches should use these findings to practice various kinds of relaxation techniques on athletes. Practicing relaxation techniques can reduce the number of athletes taking drugs to reduce anxiety and enhance performance. For sport industry, relaxation techniques product can be sold through the form of CDs, VCDs, DVDs and audio.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[The Murder of Therapy: Why Clients Don’t Get Better ]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  3  

Steven Bell   

This is an article describing and analyzing my four months working as a Psychologist in the Occupied Territories known as the West Bank, Palestine. While I speak of two families and two children, this is done to make the story easier to tell. Actually, I worked with several families and multiple children. I discovered the power and challenge of a collectivist culture to applying learning theory principles. The work of Professors Nathan Azrin (Azrin, 1974), Richard Foxx (Foxx, 1982), and Marc Gold (Gold, 1974) was basic to my therapeutic approach. Azrin and Foxx were able to bridge the gap between modifying the behavior of laboratory animals to the teaching of humans and their families to decrease negative actions and increase positive ones in two primary ways. In the instances reported in this paper parent of the individuals successfully though hesitantly raised their expectations and were taught to break down the tasks into more manageable steps. Marc Gold expressly focused on Moderately Intellectual Disabled Individuals. Where this paper is different from hundreds of other behavioral modification reports is the unique context of a collectivist Palestinian culture struggling to survive under a military occupation. The collectivist imperative required the mothers (who were cast by the culture into the primary distributors of rewards and task difficulty). Simultaneously, because of the military occupation the mothers were unable to travel (from Bethlehem to Jerusalem) to institutions and agencies which could have provided guidance and support.

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Mar 2014
<![CDATA[Using Self-handicaps to Protect Self-esteem: Young Peoples’ Responses to Evaluative Threat in Sport]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

P.D. Cooley   and S.J. Pedersen   

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, certainty of self-esteem and trait self-handicapping and the use of self-avowals of performance disruption. A random sample of young people for whom sport was highly self-relevant, were randomly allocated to a condition that exposed them to unexplained failure on a sport test or a non-evaluative condition. Results showed that low self-esteem individuals who experienced unexpected failure significantly reported more performance disruption as a self-handicap. Trait self-handicapping, certainty of self-esteem and gender were not predictors of self-handicapping. Recommendations for teachers and coaches are discussed.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Gender Differences: What We Seek in Romantic and Sexual Partners]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Allison Emond   and Nina B. Eduljee   

The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences with regard to what we seek in romantic and sexual partners, as well as to examine differences between those currently in a relationship and those who are not. Participants were 87 undergraduate students (29 males, 58 females) recruited from a college in the northeast. Author-created surveys modeled along the lines on the research done by Buss & Barnes (1986) were constructed, which asked participants to rank the importance of characteristics, as well as rank the three most important and three least important characteristics with regards to what they seek in romantic and sexual partners. The results indicated that females place as much importance on physical attractiveness as an ideal characteristic in a sexual partner as males. Both males and females viewed loyalty as the most important characteristic in a romantic partner. Students who were in a relationship and those not in a relationship viewed loyalty as the most important characteristic in romantic partner, but viewed physical attractiveness as the most important characteristic in a sexual partner. Males also considered financial resources as a least important characteristic when thinking of an ideal romantic partner. Implications of this study are discussed.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Workplace Bullying and Job Satisfaction: The Buffering Effect of Social Support]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Tammy L. Carroll   and Martin Lauzier   

Linkages between social support, incidents of workplace bullying, and job satisfaction have received limited attention in the workplace bullying literature. Hence, the purpose of this study is to contribute to this particular literature by examining (1) the relationship between workplace bullying and job satisfaction and (2) the moderating effect of social support on this relationship. A total of 249 Canadian workers from various organizations, in both private and public sector, took part in this study. As expected, results of this study showed that workplace bullying negatively affects job satisfaction. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that social support is a moderator for the workplace bullying and job satisfaction relationship. This study provides clarity on some of the negative effects of workplace bullying. It also suggests that social support can protect workers from a particular damaging consequence of workplace bullying. Such support appears to function as a buffer for targets of workplace bullying by providing them with resources to cope with these types of difficult workplace situations. Implications from the findings and suggestions for future research are presented.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Developing Sport Environment Based on Motives of Different Ethnics]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Vincent A. Parnabas   and Julinamary Parnabas   

People from different cultural background show different motives for taking part in sports. Since lack of research in this area, there is still uncertainty on motives of different cultural groups in Malaysia. Malaysia consists of many ethnic groups with different cultural backgrounds, namely Malays, Chinese and Indians, maintain separate cultural identities. Knowing motives of different ethnics for participating in sports will help sports psychologists and sport industries to develop an appropriate sports environment for that ethnics. The present research will evaluate the motives that encourage different background ethnics to participate in sports, in order to develop sport environment according to each ethnic needs. The sample consisted of 231 athletes, with Malay ethnic athletes (N=101), Chinese ethnic athletes (N=73) and Indian ethnic athletes (N=57). A 30-item questionnaire called “Motives of Taking Part in Sport” was used. Six factors were derived from the questionnaire. They are socialization, high status career, green space area, music, body shape and challenges. The result showed that Malay ethnic group taking part in sport for green space environment, Chinese for body shape, while Indians for socialization. The findings of this study will be beneficial to government officials, private sectors, sports psychologists and sport industries in Malaysia in conducting sports centers, products or services to encourage different ethnics in Malaysia to take part in sports.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Differences in the Experience and Expression of Sexual Jealousy: A Terror Management Theory Perspective]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Claude H. Miller   Bobi Ivanov   Mark J. Landau   Dini Masad   Shane Semmler   and Jennifer Ann White   

Although there is general agreement the causes and consequences of jealousy bear on self-esteem, research on the experience and expression of jealousy has produced conflicting results regarding gender differences. From the perspective of terror management theory TMT; 1], individuals adopt meaningful cultural worldviews—including culturally derived and expressed sexual attitudes—to strengthen their self-esteem and ward off existential anxiety. The present research assessed the idea that admitting vulnerability to feelings of sexual or emotional jealousy can pose a threat to self-esteem, thus altering how the emotion is expressed and communicated. Accordingly, we tested and found that men—generally thought to experience, exhibit, and express greater sexual jealousy than women—reported less sexual jealousy when mortality concerns were made salient. It is argued that gender differences in the expression of sexual jealousy (although not necessarily the experience) are moderated by self-esteem concerns associated with socialization and enculturation.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Teacher’s Perception on Children Having Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Mahewash Hasan   and Nishi Tripathi   

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions of children in their classes for which an instrument or a checklist for teachers was developed to help in the identification of ADHD in children. Problem Behavior Rating Scale for teachers was developed and its reliability was measured. Analysis of the data was performed to describe teachers’ perceptions of children on the basis of class, age and gender of children with ADHD disorder. It was found that there were age and gender differences in children with ADHD. There was class wise difference also in children with ADHD.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Social Work Design and Prosocial Organizational Behaviors]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  2  

Ay?a Bülbül   

Prosocial behaviors are defined as acts which are performed by an individual or a group and are beneficial to other people either at the individual or group level. An act qualifies as prosocial regardless of the motivation of the agent or the fact that the act was voluntary or a role requirement. With this broad definition, prosocial behaviors in organizations constitute a less researched topic in organizational literature. Rather, it was conventionally operationalized as organizational citizenship behaviors, helping others or willingness to cooperate. In this respect, the present study is an attempt to operationalize prosocial organizational behaviors with a broader scope and aims to explore the social structure of work as an antecedent of prosocial organizational behaviors. Social aspects of work design were explored as likely antecedents of prosocial organizational behaviors. A total of 308 employees, working in white-collar jobs from various industries participated in the study. Among the antecedents tested, interaction and caring were found to contribute significantly to prosocial behaviors in organizations, while the contribution of interdependence was not found to be significant. The findings were discussed in terms of their possible individual as well as organizational outcomes.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[In Search of Annie: A Study of Viewers' Feedback to the Crime Documentaries Highlighting Famous Irish Murder and Missing Persons]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Mike Berry   and Mary Aiken   

The purpose of this study is to offer some data to answer the question of who responds to media requests for assistance to help in solving major crimes, why do they, how opinionated are they, and how useful is the process? Six one hour documentaries were commissioned by an Irish national television station and presented by Mary Aiken and Mike Berry and broadcasted as “Crime in Mind” in a prime time slot. Five cases were identified for analysis including the case of Annie McCarrick, an American student, who disappeared from Dublin. All were cold cases where most avenues of investigation had been exhausted. A 'confidential web line’, a new Forensic Cyberpsychology online reporting medium, was employed to encourage viewers to add any new information or express views about the cold case(s). Initial analysis of the data is very promising; results are being actively pursued with the relevant authorities. This study has explored the characteristic and value of requesting help from the public, leveraging academic expertise, media and technology tools that may facilitate recall of material that could lead to the solving of serious offences. Findings including a breakdown of demographics, suspects and location of bodies.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Anti-Fat Attitudes of African American Preschool Children: An Exploratory Study]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Nathanael G. Mitchell   Danelle Stevens- Watkins   and Alexandra W. Bea   

Negative attitudes towards obesity are nearly ubiquitous in western society, with measurable anti-fat attitudes in children even as young as three years of age. Unfortunately, the research on the anti-fat attitudes in preschool children has used primarily white, middle class children as their participants. This is a significant limitation as previous research indicates that minority children are at greater risk of obesity and that African American individuals may have greater acceptance of a larger body size. The goal of the current study was to investigate the extent to which young African American preschool children harbor anti-fat attitudes toward obese body types. 24 African American preschool children were asked to assign both positive and negative attributes to pictures of three different body sizes (thin, average, obese). Results indicated that preschool children aged 4 and 5 attribute more negative characteristics to obese body figures than to either thin or average, while 3-year=old African American children do not. Children’s BMI was not a significant correlate of anti-fat attitudes. Findings further research by showing that not only Caucasian children harbor anti-fat attitudes, but also young African American children harbor measureable negative attitudes towards obesity by age 4.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Experiences of Adolescents Seeking Multidisciplinary Treatment for Chronic Pain]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Katie Fleischman   Ling-LunChien   Anthony A. Hains   Heidi F. Christianson   Renee J. Ladwig   Kimberly A. Khan   Hobart Davies   Keri R. Hainsworth   Molly M. Garwood   and Steven J. Weisman   

Twelve adolescents receiving treatment from a hospital- based pain clinic were interviewed about their experience of receiving an initial multidisciplinary evaluation for chronic pain. Using Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), categories and subcategories were identified based on adolescents’ perception of their initial appointment with the multidisciplinary treatment team. Findings suggest that exposure to multiple treatment options may have led to variability in the adolescents’ level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with certain aspects of their care. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[The Level of Practicing Safe Sex among Athletes in Malaysia to Prevent AIDS]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Vincent A. Parnabas   

The use of condoms is one of the safer sex practices to prevent AIDS, since it creates a barrier between the semen and the internal tissue that collect the semen and prevent it from entering into the sexual partner’s body. It is very important to evaluate the level of knowledge on AIDS and awareness of prevention among athletes since they can be the most risky population since frequently travels to overseas and other countries for sports competition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of AIDS and the awareness to prevent it by practicing safe sex, among athletes from different skills. The sample consisted of 137 athletes, with national (N=78), state (N=31), district (N=17) and university (N= 11) skill athletes. Those athletes involved in ASEAN University Games (AUG), Laos, in 2012. HIV/AIDS Questionnaire, which consists 29 items was used in this study. The result showed that the willingness to associate with HIV/AIDS-infected person, interest in HIV/AIDS educations, the knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission modes and understanding HIV/AIDS risk behavior, was higher on national level athletes compared to other categories. However no significance difference was found on the willingness to practice safe sex among different skill athletes. Furthermore, the level of willingness to practice sex was lower among all the skill categories. Sport psychologist, coaches and condom companies in Malaysia can use the result of this study to promote condoms to all skilled athletes to prevent AIDS. Elements that promote strategy of condoms among athletes are advertising, publicity, activities and inducements in sports event, public relations, personal selling and sponsorship.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Psychological Analysis of Codependents]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Yekaterina Raklova   

This article considers general issues and the relevance of co-dependence, and the results of pilot study of wives and husbands who have alcohol problems are given . Under the co-dependence, we understand, a painful condition in real time, which is largely the result of adaptation to a family problem. Initially, this remedy or means of survival for the person in adverse family circumstances for him, a kind of anchored response to stress or alcohol addiction a loved one, which eventually becomes a way of life.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Codependence, Contradependence, Gender-Stereotyped Traits, Personality Dimensions, and Problem Drinking]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Catherine A. Hawkins   and Raymond C. Hawkins II   

This study explored the relationship between codependence assessment scales, gender, positive and negative gender-stereotyped traits, and other measures of personality and problem drinking. These instruments were administered to a sample of 208 American undergraduates. The results revealed no gender differences on the codependence measures. Students reporting a positive family history of alcohol problems scored significantly higher on codependence. Codependence was negatively correlated with socially desirable masculinity and femininity traits. Moreover, codependence was related to “Adult Children of Alcoholics” traits, shame, and vulnerability to depression [sociotropy]. Sensation seeking, negative masculinity, and problem drinking tendencies loaded on a separate factor called contradependence. These empirical findings suggest the utility of the codependence concept for further research in clinical or community settings, particularly when distinguished from contradependence.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Hour of HOPE: A Spiritual Prayer Program for Homeless Adults]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  2  Number  1  

Andrew Piraino   Gail Krema   Shannon M. Williams   and Joseph R. Ferrari   

Self-expression of one’s life history within the context of a spiritual program focused on prayer may be important to homeless adults. We explored a 22 weekly evening one hour program called Hour of HOPE (Hearing Other People’s Experiences), with working poor adult women and men living within an affluent suburb to a major metropolitan US city. Participants (n = 7) and team leaders (n = 7) completed a very brief open-ended survey asking the most/least helpful session, what should be retained or changed moving forward, and a reason why they felt someone should participate. Response rate was low, but overall emerged themes were extremely positive. Individuals felt that this program gave them a voice, a place where their life story could be heard and expresses in a safe setting. Implications for expanding similar spiritual programs among homeless adults are discussed.

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Jan 2014
<![CDATA[Graphology in Psychological Assessment: A Diagnosis in Writing]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  4  

Pierre E Cronje   and Hester E Roets   

Many clinicians, even those without graphological knowledge, are fascinated by the uniqueness of handwriting. No wonder, since the development of one’s handwriting is the result of a unique, complex developmental process. Fascination in handwriting led to the intriguing study of graphology as a means of understanding human behaviour. There are different schools of graphology, one being the ‘trait school’ which interprets handwriting according to single signs and the other being the holistic approach, which advocates the analysis of handwriting as a Gestalt. The trait-method does not do justice to the multi-faceted nature of personality, but the holistic approach seems to be a powerful expressive projective technique. The reliability of the holistic method was put to the test by comparing clinical findings of a patient to a ‘blind’ handwriting analysis of the same patient done independently by a professional graphologist. Graphological inferences made from the five (5) unique composite profiles, show strong similarities with diagnoses on Axis I and Axis II (DSM-IV-TRTM) (APA 2000) of the same patients, which confirms the value of graphology in psychological assessment.

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[Symbiosis Problemsin Codependent Families]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  4  

Ekaterina Raklova   

The means for correction of codependent individual states problem is considered in this article We believe that codependency is a dynamic form, so that it can be corrected. The level of codependent states of the individual may be reduced under the certain conditions. The article studies codependency as a condition that occurs in family members of alcoholics or people with other forms of addiction, which is often worse than the disease itself. Codependency can be compared to a symbiosis of an alcoholic and his/her family members, but this combination has a destructive tendency, not only for the "donor", but for all family members. Codependency is originally formed by humanitarian reasons, such as helping a drinker, but with the development of alcoholism the mechanism of codependency obtains the reverse vector. Experts’ fear is caused especially by the pattern of learned behaviors, feelings, and beliefs that make life troubled, effect adversely on people’s adaptation and lead to negative personality changes, problems of harmonious and comprehensive development. This defines codependency as a serious psychological, medical, educational and social problem.

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[The Agony of Puerperal Psychosis on Women in Childbirth: Implications for Counselling and Health Education]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  4  

Ime N. George   Felicia S. Ekpu   and Eme E. Imah   

Puerperal psychosis is a rare but serious mental stress disorder triggered within a few months after childbirth. It is considered one of the most dangerous forms of post- partum stress disorders, which could lead to a tragic outcome if not detected and treated quickly. This paper examines the causes of the health condition as being; previous history of bipolar disease, hormonal changes, chromosomal problems, severe economic difficulties, lack of social support, poor self-image, and strained relationship with spouse among others. The signs and symptoms explored include anxiety, restlessness, sadness, depression and hallucination. Consequently, the necessity for counselling and health education need not be overemphasized as the pregnant women should be counselled right from prenatal period for the need to be emotionally and psychologically adjusted during childbirth. There is also great need for strong family involvement and support, psychiatrist services should be sought and judicious administration of prescribed drugs to clients to avoid relapse of the health condition, above all health education at all stages to the child-bearing families.

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[The Effects of Economic Crisis on the Phenomenon of Parentification]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Eleni Jelastopulu and Konstantina Anna Tzoumerka 

“Parentification” is the reversion of the roles between parents and children. Children undertake roles either emotionally or practically that are not appropriate for their age but for an adult [1,2]. Thus, children become parentified. The aim of this study is to examine: a) the impact of the economic crisis on adults who have experienced the phenomenon of' “parentificaton” and b) if experiencing a traumatic event such as economic crisis, the person who had been called to take the role of a parent during their childhood and now has to undertake the same role as an adult, will be able to endure this weight again without being subject to psychological disorders. Three men and three women from Cyprus and Greece, between 23 and 26 years of age participated in a qualitative research with semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed by the method of thematic analysis. The results suggest the impact of economic crisis on parentified adults within specific themes. The identified themes were: Lost Identity, Conflict, Escapism and Depression. Even though the number of participants is small to allow generalization, the results suggest that this research be used as an incentive to encourage mental health professionals to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on adult clients, with regard to the phenomenon of “parentification”.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Mothers’ Perceptions of Their Children’s Play: Scale Development and Validation]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Lynn Barnett Morris 

The wealth of literature that has investigated childrena's play behavior has largely relied on reports from mothers who have beliefs about the value of play for their child, and about how, when, and with whom their children should play. These beliefs and opinions influence the types of play opportunities, materials, and programs they provide, which in turn affect the childan's developmental trajectory and outcomes. The present study identified the issues that constitute parental beliefs about their childrenan's play, and developed a scale (the Mothersa' Perceptions of Their Childrenan's Play Scale) to measure them, with rigorous psychometric testing to establish its reliability and validity. The study was conducted on 698 mothers and their third through fifth grade child, and is the first to measure mothers’ perspectives on their childrenan's play at this age. The findings of the study determined that there were two subscales a “ mothers”beliefs about their childan's unstructured play and about their structured play a “ both of which showed high internal reliability and temporal stability over a three month period, as did their component dimensions. Face, content and construct (concurrent, discriminant) validity were also found to be highly acceptable for the subscales and for the scale as a whole.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Pre-Operative Psychological Characteristics of Gastric Band and Gastric Bypass Patients]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Maria E. Bleil Susan Labott and Sarah R. Shelby 

Weight loss outcomes vary among different bariatric procedures, and may be partially due to differences in patient characteristics that are present preoperatively. In an observational study, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) and Roux-En-Y laparoscopic or open gastric bypass (RYGB) patients were compared on pre-op dimensions of depression, anxiety, and disordered eating. Results indicated that depression scores were in the mild range, and anxiety scores were in the mild range only for RYGB patients. In comparison to adults with eating disorders, scores on disordered eating scales were low. Cognitive-affective depression symptoms and several eating disorder subscale scores were higher in RYGB than in LAGB patients. This suggests that surgical candidates who choose RYGB surgery may differ psychologically from those who choose LAGB, although other factors impact choice of procedure also. Future research should delineate the decision-making process leading to the selection of a surgery type as well as the match of the patients to the demands of the post-op regimen.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[The Level of Motives and Anxiety of Football Players among Different Ethnics in Malaysia]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Vincent A. Parnabas Yahaya Mahamood and Julinamary Parnabas 

Previous research in Malaysia found that the six important motives, given by students-athletes for sport participation were achievement, body shape, physical fitness, teamwork, learning new skills and for challenges. However, research comparing different ethnic on taking part in sports, especially football is limited. The aim of this study is to find the motives of taking part in sport and level of anxiety among Malay, Chinese and Indians. A hundred and thirty student-athletes from different ethnic background were selected, to respond Purpose of Sport Questionnaire and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The sample was chosen from the Malaysian Sports Council, during Malaysian Inter-Schools Sports Competition. The result showed that the most highest motive for a Chinese ethnic taking part in football for physically active lifestyle, Malays ethnic for mastery or cooperation and Indians for social status or getting ahead. Furthermore, the result revealed that the football players in the categories of Indians ethnic exhibit higher level of competitive anxiety than categories of Malay and Chinese ethnic. Negative correlation noted between the level of motives and anxiety among all ethnics. Sports psychologists, coach or sport officers can use this research to develop appropriate football environment for Malays, Chinese and Indians, to maintain their interest in football.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Soft Skills and Job Satisfaction: Two Models in Comparison]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Claudio Palumbo  

The implementation of soft skills has direct effects on the job satisfaction and motivation to work. The comparison between the two general models presented here proposes an area of research that, in addition to confirming the validity of the above correlations, intends to draw the attention to the need to make soft skills object of researches through more operational categories.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[What is American? Ideology and Cognition in American Politics]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Eric C. Stephens and Christopher S. Leskiw   

Three hypotheses were investigated to determine whether perception of prototypical American and non-American values varied depending upon political ideology and whether the values were presented as brief images or word descriptors. Respondents were shown 40 images one at a time for 10 seconds each. Half of these images were in pictorial form and the remaining images were the corresponding textual representation. An analysis of results revealed general agreement in perception based upon political ideology and presentation form of stimuli. However, the context in which images appeared affected the ratings of respondents to some degree. Interpretations of these findings are discussed.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[A Transactional Model of Learning and Intelligence]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  3  

Henry Jefferson Grubb 

A transactional model of intelligence is contrasted with main-effect and interactional models through the examination of perhaps the most important source of biological and social-cultural determinants to intellectual behavior; the family of origin. This examination allows the science of cognition both an understanding of intelligence and the development of intelligence. A method of investigation of intellectual development and cognitive science’s ability to understand intelligence and learning is suggested.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Privacy and Security in Technology-enhanced Environments: Exploring Users’ Knowledge about Technological Processes of Diverse User Groups]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Oliver Sack and Carsten R?cker 

This article reports on two user studies exploring the knowledge of end users about technical processes of technology-enhanced home environments, which are often assumed to play an important role for attitudes such as privacy and security. In the first study (n=12 participants between 19-71 years of age), we analyzed user knowledge about technical processes using the teach-back methodology. In the second study, we additionally applied new developed questionnaires and analyzed participants’ data (n=24 participants between 19-76 years of age) regarding relations of user factors, users’ knowledge about technical processes and attitudes such as privacy and security of technology-enhanced environments. In contrast to existing assumptions, the results showed that general structural knowledge about technical processes was not related with attitudes such as privacy and security. Additionally, we found that most participants had only relatively superficial knowledge about technical processes, which was further influenced by age and technology experience.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[Victims’ Voices: The Impact of Online Grooming and Sexual Abuse]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Helen C. Whittle Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis and Anthony R. Beech 

This paper reports one of the first studies to identify the impact on the victim of online grooming leading to online and/or offline sexual abuse. Eight young people (six females and two males) who had been victimised through online grooming and subsequently experienced sexual abuse online and/or offline were interviewed. Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. The impact of sexual abuse on the young person appears to be correlated with their level of vulnerability prior to the onset of grooming and also their experience with professionals following abuse. Most notably, those experiencing multiple long-term risk factors suffered greater negative impact after the grooming and abuse on an individual level (e.g., self-harm, depression), compared to those who had more protection. However, these individuals were also more likely to experience unsupportive and negative responses from their families. Therefore future research is required to further investigate this relationship. There is no evidence in this study to suggest that young people who are abused via the Internet suffer less harm than those who are abused offline. Based on the victim’s direct experience of the services, recommendations are given for police, ABE (Achieving Best Evidence) interviewers, educationalists, and parents and carers.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[Teacher Gender and Attitude of Primary School Pupils to Schooling in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Dr. Cornelius C. Okoro and Dr.Christopher S. Uwah 

This study assessed the influence of teacher gender on the attitude of primary school pupils to schooling in Uyo Metropolis. Four research questions and four hypotheses were generated to direct the conduct of the study. A sample of 400 pupils was drawn from a population of 1400 primary five pupils using the multistage random sampling technique. The ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study and the research instrument used was the Pupil’s Attitude to Schooling Questionnaire (PASQ) designed by the researchers. The results showed that teacher gender has significant influence on the attitude of pupils to schooling. On the basis of the results, recommendations were made with emphasis on training and employing more males as primary school teachers to counter the current gender imbalance in the profession.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[Proxemics Revisited: Similar Effects of Arms Length on Men's and Women's Personal Distances]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Nicola Bruno and Michela Muzzolini 

Handbooks of human communication describe personal distance as a protective bubble surrounding our body and stress the role of sex (along with other cultural and situational factors) in stretching and shrinking it. Using data from a simulated dyadic interaction procedure, we show that putative effects of sex may be explained by effects of one’s arm length in same-sex and different-sex interactions. This suggests that biological factors related to the body schema provide the crucial constraints on the use of personal space for communication.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and the Academic Performance among Final Year under Graduates]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Arockia Maraichelvi  and Sangeetha Rajan 

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been a popular topic of debate in the field of education in general and management in particular. It is considered as a successful predictor of academicsuccess/performance/achievement. Researchers have claimed that EI predicts success at schools, and colleges/ universities. However, little empirical research has been conducted to test this assertion. In this study of survey research, the relationship of EI as measured by S.K. Mangal and Shubra Mangal’s EI Inventory (MEII) and academic performance were examined in a sample of final year under graduate students (N=300). EI in its four specified domains namely Intrapersonal Awareness, Interpersonal Awareness, Intrapersonal Management and Interpersonal Management separately as well as totally was found to be positively associated with academic performance of the selected respondents. Also the total EI score showed a percentage of 7.5 per cent of the sample being emotionally intelligent. The significant ‘f’ value has evidently showed that EI could predict academic performance of college students. The findings provide a further need on how to improve upon the academics of students. Also, the study has shown that emotional well - being could be emphasized on academic success. Implications and recommendations for developing EI among students are discussed.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[From Vygotsky to Martín Baró: Dealing with Language and Liberation During the Supervision Process]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Edil Torres Rivera Jose Maldonado and Laura Alarcon 

The liberation psychology movement first began in the 1980’s when Ignacio Martín Baró of Central America first coined the term. The principles of liberation psychology outline a series of action-oriented charges that have pragmatic use in supervision, particularly with regard to the use of language in the clinical supervision process. While the issue(s) of language and the supervision process have not been completely ignored, the studies are sparse, and those found rarely included the dynamics of oppression or the potential for imposition of values from supervisor to supervisee. This manuscript intends to re-introduce Vygotsky's model of supervision (Hess, 2008), as interpreted by Martín Baró (2005), with an emphasis on the use of language and language dynamics in the supervisory process. The manuscript will delineate the principles and urgent tasks of liberation psychology and the implications of language in an action-oriented supervisory process. Implications and conclusions are discussed.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[Modern Robust Statistical Methods: Basics with Illustrations Using Psychobiological Data]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  2  

Rand R. Wilcox Douglas A. Granger and Florence Clark 

Psychological studies in general, and psychobiological studies in particular, routinely use a collection of classic statistical techniques aimed at comparing groups or studying associations. A fundamental issue is whether violating the basic assumptions underlying these methods, namely normality and homoscedasticity, can result in relatively poor power or miss important features of the data that have practical significance. In the statistics literature, hundreds of papers make it clear that under general conditions the answer is yes and that routinely used strategies for dealing with violations of assumptions can be unsatisfactory. Moreover, a vast array of new and improved techniques is now available for dealing with violations of assumptions, including more flexible methods for dealing with curvature. The paper reviews the major insights regarding standard methods, explains why some seemingly reasonable methods for dealing with violations of assumptions are technically unsound, and then outlines methods that are technically correct. It then illustrates the practical importance of modern methods using data from the Well Elderly II study.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[A Comparison of Self-Report Adult Attachment Measures: How Do They Converge and Diverge?]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  1  

Lin Shi Richard Wampler and Karen Wampler 

Using a sample of 448 undergraduate students the study compared two self-report adult attachment measures: the original three-category Attachment Style Prototype (ASP) and the two-dimension four-category Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR). The distribution of attachment style categories assessed by the two measures differed significantly, and the shifts among the categories were not related solely to the introduction of the fourth category in ECR. However, the two measures were related in meaningful ways, despite differences in conceptualization. The dimensional ECR was a better predictor of the criterion variables, conflict resolution behaviors (measured by Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II), than the ASP. The dimensional ECR is a more sensitive and powerful instrument in the relationship context examined. However, categorical measures provide a broad description of the archetype of the attachment style category.

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Jun 2013
<![CDATA[Resilience of the Tower Test to Response Bias]]> Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  1  Number  1  

Thomas M. Dunn Amy Rhodes and Shanda D. Crowder 

Neurocognitive response bias is a concern of clinical neuropsychologists, as accurate assessment is not possible if the patient being tested is not putting forth maximum effort during testing. Despite decades of research in this area, very little study has specifically examined the resilience of neuropsychological tests to incomplete effort. When college students asked to feign cognitive deficits are assessed on the Tower Test from the Delis – Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), they perform similarly to control participants (asked to do their best) on several Tower Test scales and significantly better than those with known clinical deficits. These results suggest that the Tower Test may have some resiliency to neurocognitive response bias.

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Jun 2013
成上人色爱