<![CDATA[Bioengineering and Bioscience]]> en-us 2020-04-07 03:09:44 2020-04-07 03:09:44 ZWWY RSS Generator <![CDATA[Biomimetic and Functioning Artificial Tissues - Mastering Irrigation, Nourishment, Microfluidics and Nerve Networks to Keep the Cells Alive]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  6  Number  2  

Edilson Gomes de Lima   

This paper attempts to bring the view from mechanical engineering from complex industrial processes to tissue engineering. With the intention of bringing this contribution to those involved in tissue engineering, this study sought to be meticulous and to present the key points that can provide significant results. Among one of the contributions is the discussion on the subject, from an engineering point of view, and suggestions such as the generation of engineering diagrams, mapping and detailing each part of the study of the human body. And these engineering diagrams identified by code I.D. each component of the tissues call a datasheet. In this multidisciplinary document with the maximum information and characterization of each component of human tissues, all these information can be used to feed machines and better understand the compounds of the human body in near future. Providing a complete documentation and a nanotopography mapping of the tissues with nanotechnological information and dimensions to the tissues, it is not just a matter of automating tissue engineering, but moreover, understanding the entire biological process system globally. Just as it is done in engineering diagrams of process industries, in analytical engineering, but focused in bioartificial cellular matrix. With this local and global comprehension in tissues, new steps for the field and new challenges can be taken.

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Jun 2018
<![CDATA[Reversal of Antibiotic Resistance by Phage Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  6  Number  1  

Sadhana Singh Sagar   Ram Narain   Rajesh Kumar   and Shilpa Deshpande Kaistha   

Emergence of antibiotic resistance is a serious cause of concern worldwide. Limitation in the discovery of new antibiotics and emergence of resistant infectious microorganisms has directed the attention of researcher toward the phage therapy. Phages are obligate parasite of bacteria and they are highly specific for their host. Phage therapy is an ideal strategy for the control of such infectious pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 is multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, biofilm forming nosocomial pathogen. Phage therapy of PA01 was studied using bacteriophage φs1 isolated from Ganga water, India. During this study, we observed PA01 variants that had evolved resistant mechanism against phage φs1 infection. These phage resistance cells showed variation in their pigment production from green to brown and also showed reversion of antibiotic resistance for- erythromycin (ERT), norfloxacin (NRF), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), gatifloxacin (GAT), and imipenem (IMP) class of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of prPA01 also decreased by up to 90% and they became more susceptible for imipenem antibiotic as compare to PA01.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ANSC: Equilibria Isothermic, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  6  Number  1  

Ojiagu, Kingsley David   Odibo, Frederick John Chidi   Ojiagu, Nnenna Chinelo   Agu, Kingsley Chukwuebuka   and Okafor, Arthur Chinedu   

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ANSC, a non-genetically modified bacterial strain isolated from soil was used to study and evaluate biosorption potentials for hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) from aqueous solution. Living, heat-killed, and permeabilised cells were all used and found to be capable of reducing and sorbing Cr(VI). The influences of initial Cr(VI) ion concentration (50-150 mg/L), contact time (2 h, 10 min intervals), pH (2-8), temperature (30-60℃) and biosorbent mass (1.0-5.0 g/l) were reported. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is highly pH- and temperature-dependent, and the results indicate that the optimum pH and temperature for removal were found to be 2 and 60℃ respectively. The hexavalent chromium biosorption equilibrium could be better described by Langmuir isotherm than it could by Freundlich isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the biosorbents was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Results show that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was evidenced to correlate better the experimental data. The rate of hexavalent chromium adsorption increased following permeabilisation of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by surfactants such as Triton X100, Tween 80, toluene, sodium deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate. The adsorption process has been found endothermic, and thermodynamic parameters of Gibb's free energy (ΔG°), change in enthalpy (ΔH°) and change in entropy (ΔS°) were calculated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ANSC evidenced an effective biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium in aqueous form.

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Feb 2018
<![CDATA[Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Bacteria from Ezzu River Amansea, Awka, Anambra State]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  

Agu K. C.   Nmecha C. O.   Nwaiwu M. O.   Ikedinma J. C.   Awah N. S.   Eneite, H. C.   Victor-Aduloju A. T.   Umeoduagu N.   and Onwuatuegwu, J. T. C.   

Halotolerant bacteria are microorganisms that can grow over a large variety of salt concentrations but thrive better in low salinities. This group of bacteria is known to be diverse in nature and can be isolated from the soil, water, and even some rocks. Their compatible solutes serve as survival mechanism when the organisms are exposed to high salinities. Halotolerant bacteria have been applied in the production of antimicrobial substances, in food biotechnology, in biological waste treatment, and in the use of Biosurfactants for bioremediation purposes. Halotolerant bacteria are made up of both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in different genera like Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. This research emphasized on the isolation of halotolerant bacteria from Ezzu River, Amansea, Awka, Anambra state using nutrient medium supplemented with different salt (sodium chloride) concentrations and Marine Agar. Pour plate method was used for the isolation of the bacterial strains. The isolates which were yellow and creamy white in color were labeled A, B, and C and their morphological characteristics, noted. They were further Gram stained. The three isolates were Gram-positive cocci and appeared in clusters. They were non-motile. Further characterization was done using biochemical test: catalase test, coagulase test, citrate, and urease and carbohydrate fermentation of different sugars. After the analyses carried out on the three isolates, the halotolerant bacteria suspected to be present in Ezzu River, Anambra state were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lentus, and Micrococcus luteus.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Implication of Acute, Sub-chronic and Chronic Exposure to Different Pesticides via Inhalation on Male Wistar Rats]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  

Oluwatoyin Taiwo Adeoti   Donatus Chuka Belonwu   Mathew Owhonda Wegwu   and Justice Obinna Osuoha   

This study was carried out to investigate the combined toxicological effects of ten pesticides: Paraquat, Termicot (Chlorpyrifos), Sniper (Dichlorvos (Ddvp), Best (Cypermethrin), Delta Force (Deltamethrin), Vitoate 40 EC (Dimethoate), Force Up (Glyphosate), Attacke and Karto (Lambda Cyhalothrin) on some selected hematological and biochemical profile of male Wistar rats. Thirty six male Wistar rats weighing 152-198g were divided into three groups on weight basis. Groups' 1 and 2 containing 12 rats each were exposed to the pesticides by inhalation for 8 hours daily while the rats in group 3 received normal feed and water and constituted the male control for comparison. The Wistar rats were used to simulate the interminate exposure of farmers and retailers who use and sell these pesticides regularly. In comparison to male control animals alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the male rats exposed to these pesticides fumes increased significantly (p<0.05). The hematological parameters revealed an insignificant decrease in red blood cell count (RBC) indices after 2 weeks and a further insignificant decrease in RBC after 4 weeks in the male rats, hemoglobin (HB) and packed cell volume (PCV) levels also decreased significantly (P<0.05) after 2 weeks with more significant decrease after 4 weeks in the male rats when compared to the male control respectively. While white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils (N) and lymphocytes (L) increased insignificantly (P>0.05) after 2nd and 4th week in the male rats respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the levels of urea and creatinine as well as other serum electrolytes of the male rats after the 2nd and 4th week as compared to the male control. The results suggest that exposure to pesticides by inhalation leads to hepatotoxicity and anemia and continuous exposure to pesticides fumes may be toxic and capable of causing multiple organ toxicity, if results of this present study can be extrapolated to man.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Two Fish Species Obtained from Choba River in Rivers State, Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  

Idongesit E. Archibong   Chinedu J. Okonkwo   Matthew O. Wegwu   and Chioma J.A. Okonkwo   

The concentration of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in tissues of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish) and Liza falcipinnis (mullet) obtained from Choba river in Rivers State, Nigeria was analyzed to determine their levels and possible hazard for human consumption. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were assessed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector. Heavy metals analysis was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration of pesticides ranged from 0.0013±0.0002 to 0.0130±0.0002 μg/l and 0.0077±0.0000 to 0.0390±0.0001μg/g in water and sediments, respectively. Similarly, pesticides concentration ranged from 0.0001±0.0000 to 0.0171±0.0002μg/g and 0.0002±0.0001 to 0.0385±0.0002μg/g respectively. The concentration of PCBs in analyzed fish ranged from 0.2439±0.0001 to 0.2683±0.0003μg/g in the muscle and liver, respectively. Heavy metal concentration ranged from 0.004±0.001 to 0.460±0.002μg/g for cadmium and mercury, respectively. Risk hazard estimates of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, Chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr) in the studied fishes showed no potential adverse effect to human consumption at the observed concentrations. Mercury was high in all fish analyzed with a quotient value greater than unity indicating potential mercury poisoning. The cancer risk was also evaluated according to USEPA, (2005) and was within acceptable risk range of 10-4. Thus exposed populations are not at cancer risk through consumption of fish.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[A Review on Phytochemical Studies and Biological Potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  

Prashant Kumar Dhakad   Pramod Kumar Sharma   and Sokindra Kumar   

Cucurbits are edible crops found in the Cucurbitaceae family. Interest in plant-based biological compounds has now awakened throughout the world and hence the literature data in this area is significant. The Cucurbitaceae family is distributed in the tropical and subtropical countries. The plants of this family are superb fruit crops rich in vitamins, nutrients, and minerals that very good for health. A number of plants belonging to this family have been reported so far and one among them is Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. All the parts of this plant (root, stem, leaf, fruits, and seeds) are utilized in the traditional system of medicine. A plethora of research is going on this plant species to discover new active moiety and to establish their medicinal importance. The present review gives updated information about the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. established so far. As per the research so far among different cucurbitacins, cucurbitacin E is known to be found profoundly in Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Some of the biological activities reported for this plant include antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-hyperlipidemic activity, analgesic activity, anti-ulcer activity, anticonvulsant activity and insecticidal activity.

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Dec 2017
<![CDATA[Assessment of Vitamins, Protein Quality and Mineral Bioavailability of Matured Stems of Opuntia dillenii Grown in Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  3  

Amadi, B. A.   Njoku, U. C.   Agumuo, E. N.   Amadi, P. U.   Ezendiokwere, O. E.   and Nwauche, K. T.   

The vitamin composition, protein quality and mineral bioavailability of matured stems of Opuntia dillenii were investigated. The sample was analyzed using an automatic amino acid analyzer (JEOL (JLC 500/V) for the assessment of amino acids, and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the mineral composition analysis while the vitamin composition was evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. The amino acid composition ranged between 1.31g - 20.08g/100g. Arginine and leucine had the highest concentration of essential amino acids while glutamate and aspartate were the most abundant non-essential amino acid in the studied plant. The percentage Total essential amino acids (with Histidine), Total non-essential amino acids, Total aromatic amino acids, and Total sulphur amino acids were 41.8%, 56.1%, 8.1% and 5.3% respectively. The results for the protein quality indices: - the predicted protein efficiency ratios (P-PERs I, II, and III) were 2.45, 2.59 and 3.49 respectively. The amino acid scoring pattern showed valine and lysine as the limiting essential amino acids considering the requirements of pre-school children. The vitamin analysis showed that vitamin B12 and vitamin A were the most occurring vitamins. The mineral analysis results revealed magnesium, calcium and phosphorus as the most concentrated while the [phytate]/ [calcium] ratio and [phytate]/ [zinc] ratio in the sample were below the critical levels. The study has shown that matured stems of Opuntia dillenii can contribute greatly towards meeting human nutritional requirement and the high vitamin B12 content could be of important value in patients with severe sickle cell disease.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[Microbiological Assessment of Some Liquid Herbal Medications Sold in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  3  

Archibong, Etim Joseph   Igboeli, Chinechendo Ngozi   Okoro, Nnenna Catherine   and Obika, Ifeanyi   

The aim of this study is to microbiologically assess some liquid herbal medications sold in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. Sixty liquid herbal preparations (twenty NAFDAC registered and forty unregistered) were purchased from different vendors in Awka and analyzed for their microbiological quality by determining the levels of bacteria and fungi in them. Aliquots of the various serially diluted herbal products were cultured on various media plates; NA, SDA, MCA, EMB agar and XLD agar. Total bacterial count of 1.0 x 103 -2.1 x 106cfu/ml, total coliform count of 1 x 103 - 7.8 x 104cfu/ml; E.coli count of 1.0 x 102-2.0 x 102cfu/ml and total fungal count of 1.0 x 102 -1.4 x 105cfu/ml were obtained from NAFDAC registered ones while the unregistered ones had a total bacterial count of 3.6 x 103 - 1.11 x 107cfu/ml; total coliform count of 2.0 x 102 to 4.4 x 105cfu/ml; E. coli count of 1.0 x 102 - 7.0 x 104cfu/ml and a total fungal count of 2.0 x 102 to 2.0 x 106cfu/ml. The result showed that seventy percent of the registered drugs met the WHO standard for liquid herbal drugs while twenty-eight percent of the unregistered ones met the standard. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the total heterotrophic bacterial count and total coliform of registered and unregistered drugs and insignificant differences (P> 0.05) between their total fungal count and E. coli count. Isolates gotten from both samples includes Escherichia coli (21.6%), Enterobacter asburiae (25%), Providencia rettgeri (13.3%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.6%), Staphylococcus sp (16.6%), Bacillus sp (10%), Scedosporium aurantiacum (5%), Candida albicans (28.3%) and Candida krusei (13.3%). The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that E. coli was resistant to most of the antibacterial drugs used and Acinetobacter baumannii was the most susceptible while Penicillium marneffei was the most resistant to the antifungal drugs used and Phialophora parasiticum was the most susceptible. The research work showed that the microbial quality of these herbal drugs is low compared to standard of World Health Organization and could pose a great health risk to the society.

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Oct 2017
<![CDATA[Potentials of Chemical and Biological Hydrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in the Production of Ethanol, Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Vinegar]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  2  

C.U. Ogunka-Nnoka   and B.W. Abbey   

The potentials of Chemical (acid) and Biological (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) hydrolysis on some agricultural wastes, namely: peels from ripe plantain (RPP), unripe plantain (UPP), red cocoyam (RCP), white cocoyam (WCP), yam (YP), cassava (CP) and garri processing chaff (GPC) into beneficial by products (Ethanol, Single Cell Protein and Vinegar) were investigated using standard methods. Glucose yield ranged from 4.68-17.24mg/g, 2.41-13.84mg/g and 1.28-5.22mg/g for A. niger R. oryzae and Acid hydrolysis of the various wastes. Inoculating the hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded significant (p < 0.05) amount of ethanol after 120hrs, with significant (p < 0.05) reduction in glucose contents. Ethanol contents ranged from 3.82-6.89%, 3.74-6.44% and 3.28-6.25%, while the amount of single cell protein (SCP) obtained from the biomass after ethanol fermentation ranged from 9.10-15.80%, 7.50-13.11% and 6.00-10.20% for A. niger, R. oryzae and Acid hydrolysates respectively. The vinegar obtained after seven days fermentation of the alcoholic product had acetic acid concentrations ranging from 0.14-1.10%, 0.13-0.99% and 0.11-0.95% for A. niger, R. oryzae and acid treatments respectively. This study has shown usefulness of microbial methods of hydrolysis over the chemical treatment method, for improved yield of fermentation by products.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Antibacterial Activities of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Male and Female Carica papaya Leaves on Some Pathogenic Bacteria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  2  

Awah, N.S.   Agu, K.C.   IIkedinma, J.C.   Uzoechi, A.N.   Eneite, H.C.   Victor-Aduloju A.T.   Umeoduagu, N.D.   Onwuatuegwu, J.T.C.   and Ilikannu S.O.   

The antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of male and female Carica papaya leaves was carried out on pathogenic isolates. The leaf extracts were prepared by suspending the finely blended leaves separately in distilled water and ethanol. The mixtures were then agitated, decanted, filtered and finally, evaporated to dryness. The antibacterial activity was carried out using the disc diffusion method. The test organisms were Gram negative and Gram positive pathogenic bacteria organisms viz; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The water extracts yielded no significant antibacterial activity against the test isolates. The ethanol extracts of both male and female papaya leaves demonstrated higher activities against all the Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria tested. The highest activities (18mm zone of inhibition) were demonstrated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the female leaf extract and (17mm zone of inhibition) for the male leaf extract. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ranged between 6.25-50μg/ml and Minimum Bacteriocidal Concentration ranged between 25μg/ml-50μg/ml for both male and female ethanol extracts. Demonstration of antimicrobial activity against the test isolates is an indication that there is possibility of sourcing alternative antibiotic substances in this plant for the development of newer antibacterial agents.

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Aug 2017
<![CDATA[Screening of Alternaria Pathogens Associated with Parthenium hysterophorus for the Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  

Manpreet Kaur   and Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal   

In the present investigation five pathogenic fungal isolates such as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria macrospora MKP2, Alternaria macrospora MKP4 Alternaria sp. PMK1 and Alternaria sp. PMK2, were isolated from diseased leaves of parthenium plant and found to be pathogenic to this weed. Isolated pathogens were screened qualitatively and quantitatively for lignocellulolytic activities. All the fungal pathogens were preliminary screened by qualitative assay and showed positive results by zone formation on respective agar plates. In quantitative assay all the isolates of Alternaria showed the production of one or the other lignocellulolytic enzymes. Enzymes of the pathogenic fungi are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the strong enzymatic activities indicating the importance of the cell wall degrading enzymes in pathogenesis and potential of these pathogenic fungi to be used as biocontrol agent against parthenium weed.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Isolation and Screening of Cellulose Hydrolyzing Bacteria from Different Ecological Niches]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  

Anita Saini   Neeraj K Aggarwal   and Anita Yadav   

371 bacteria were isolated from different ecological niches. Cellulolytic potential of the isolates was evaluated by qualitative as well as quantitative screening methods. 124 bacterial cultures showed production of zone of hydrolysis in the plate assay method. The hydrolytic potential of the isolates measured in terms of cellulolytic index indicated that 84 isolates showed cellulolytic index (CI) values between 1 and 4, 22 isolates between 4 to 6 and 18 isolates in the range of 6 to 13. The positive isolates with CI values ≥4.0 were screened quantitatively for the production of cellulases, determined as carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) activity and filter paper activity (FPase). Comparison of the activities shown by the isolates with that recorded in the standard isolate of Cellulomonas fimi indicated that large number of bacteria produced considerably high amounts of cellulases. The isolate NAB37 showed highest levels of CMCase (0.948±0.011 U/ml) as well as FPase (0.125±0.005 FPU/ml) activities. The cellulolytic potential of the bacteria can be exploited in various cellulases based applications including detergents, textile, paper and pulp, food and bioethanol industries.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Extracellular Production of Amylase and Protease by Penicillium Purpurogenum BKS9]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  

Bijay Kumar Sethi   Brahmananda Dikshit   Santi Lata Sahoo   Chinmay Pradhan   Sangeeta Sena   and Bikash Chandra Behera   

In the present study, Penicillium purpurogenum BKS9 was used with different agro waste substrates i.e. starch, wheat bran, soya powder, boiled rice, unboiled rice and milk powder for the production of both amylase and protease by liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF). Among the various substrates tested, wheat bran (WB) was found to be the best substrate for maximum (112.64 U/ml) amylase production whereas soya powder (121.23 U/ml) for production of protease. Immobilization study also revealed that the highest amylase was observed (137.6 U/ml) when wheat bran was used as substrate whereas maximum protease production (130.73 U/ml) with soya seed powder. Maximum biomass production was observed (4.4 ± 0.2 g/50ml) when unboiled rice was taken as a substrate in comparison to other substrate.

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Feb 2017
<![CDATA[Optimization for Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Seeds of Thai Rice Variety: Nam Roo (Oryza sativa L.)]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  5  

Anurug Poeaim   Supattra Poeaim   Ranyikar Poraha   Saengthong Pongjaroenkit   and Pradit Pongthongkam   

The aim of this study was to develop a productive protocol for optimum callus induction and regeneration of Thai rice variety: Nam Roo (Oryza sativa L.). Callus was induced on either MS (Murashige and Skoog) or NB (Nitsch and Nitsch) media supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 0.5 mg/l NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid), 1 g/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose and 2.6 g/l phytagel. Callus from Nam Roo seed gave its maximum mean size (391.49 mm3) and mean weight (0.3412 g.) on NB medium supplemented with 1 mg/l 2, 4-D for 4 weeks. For plant regeneration the callus was cultured on either MS or NB media containing with different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and phytagel, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 30 g/l sucrose. The highest regeneration frequency (%) was observed from callus grown on MS medium composed of 2 mg/l BAP in 5.2 g/l phytagel. It took 6 weeks for the callus to regenerate into a complete plant. Finally, the plantlets were transferred into the plastic pot.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Cellulolytic Potential of Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Habitats]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  5  

Anita Saini   Neeraj K. Aggarwal   and Anita Yadav   

Twenty actinomycete isolates capable of utilizing lignocellulosic biomass were isolated from different samples of agricultural field soil, compost and decaying vegetation. Qualitative screening of all isolates during plate assay method using Congo red showed 17 of them producing a clear zone of hydrolysis around the colonies indicating cellulose hydrolytic potential of the isolates. Quantitative estimation of filter paper (FPase) and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities exhibited by the positive isolates showed that highest CMCase was produced by NAA2 (0.366 IU/ml), while highest FPase activity of 0.075 FPU/ml was observed in NAA14. All of the isolates showed FPase activities comparable to that shown by C. fimi (0.023 FPU/ml) taken as a standard, confirming the cellulose degradation ability of the isolates.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[First Report of Lignin Peroxidase Production from Alternaria alternata ANF238 Isolated from Rotten Wood Sample]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  5  

Anuja Sharma   Neeraj K. Aggarwal   and Anita Yadav   

Lignin peroxidases are considered to be the primary enzyme for oxidative depolymerisation of lignin and are responsible for H2O2-dependent oxidation of both phenolic aromatic substrates and non-phenolic lignin model compounds. The present study was undertaken to study the production of Lignin peroxidase enzyme by Alternaria alternata ANF238 isolated from rotten wood sample using water hyacinth as a lignocellulosic substrate under solid state fermentation. Various production parameters like initial moisture content, various carbon sources, nitrogen sources, inducers and their concentrations were also optimized to further increase the production of this enzyme. Maximum lignin peroxidase yield of 7.6 U/g of dry substrate was obtained with water hyacinth as substrate supplemented with 0.5% mannitol as carbon source, 1% ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source and 3 mM MnSO4 as inducer under optimized conditions. These results indicate that Alternaria alternata ANF238 is a potential candidate for production of lignin peroxidase using solid state fermentation, an enzyme with wide industrial and biotechnological applications. This study also promises effective utilization of water hyacinth as a substrate for lignin peroxidase production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the ?rst report on LiP production by Alternaria alternata.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Isolation, Characterization and Screening for Anticancer and Antimicrobial Properties of the Crude Extract from Genus Neosartorya]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  5  

Supattra Poeaim   Kongluekai Tongkantom   Prapaiporn Jabamrung   On Bo-kaew   and Mayamor Soytong   

The genus Neosartorya, the sexual states of Aspergillus, belongs to the Eurotiales which have been reported for compounds with bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antimalarial and cytotoxicity. The objective of this research was to isolate, identify and screening for anticancer and antimicrobial properties of the ethyl acetate crude extract from Neosartorya. Neosartorya sp. was isolated from soil in Chiang Mai province, Thailand by the soil plate technique. The samples were identified base on morphology and DNA sequencing: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS), ?-tubulin and calmodulin as Neosartorya hiratsukae and Neosartorya pseudofischeri. For in vitro cytotoxicity activity by MTT assay using eight cell lines (MCF-7, P388, HeLa, Vero, L929, KB, HT-29 and HepG2). The crude ethyl acetate extract of N. hiratsukae and N. pseudofischeri showed the highest potency against the L929 cell line with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 144.31 and 267.73μg/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial properties of crude extract were evaluated using disc diffusion method against five bacteria strain: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract was well inhibited the growth of gram positive pathogenic bacteria: B. subtilis, S. aureus and M. luteus. The results indicate its possible potential with the production of other bioactive agents for future anticancer and antibiotic drug development.

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Nov 2016
<![CDATA[Comparison of the Metal Toxicity due to Aluminium and Barium on the Growth Attributes of Vigna trilobata (L.) Verde]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  4  

A. Arundhathi   K. Marisamy   M. Duraipandian   R. Sevugaperumal   and V. Ramasubramanian   

The aim of this study was to investigate the ill effects of Aluminium and Barium on the morphological, biochemical and enzymatic characters of Vigna trilobata (L.) Verde which are commonly used in the fireworks industries of this area. After ten days treatment with different concentrations of aluminium and barium (2, 4, 6, 8 & 10mM), the plant exhibited a decline in growth, chlorophyll contents, soluble sugar and protein than in the control. In contrary, the content of free amino acid, proline, leaf nitrate and the activities of enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase were found increased with the increase in the concentration of aluminium and barium while the activity of nitrate reductase were found to be decreased. Comparison of the parameters analyzed between the treated and control reveals that aluminium and barium have seriously affected the Vigna trilobata (L.) Verde. Based on this, it was concluded that high concentration of aluminium and barium severely affect the plant growth and result in growth inhibition, decline in physiological and biochemical activities of crop plants.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Screening of Citric Acid Producing Fungi from the Leaf Litter Soil of Sathuragiri Hills]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  4  

Thiruvengadam Shankar   and Thangavel Sivakumar   

Soil samples were collected from ten different locations of Sathuragiri Hills (Western Ghats, Tamilnadu). Percentage frequency of occurrence of fungal isolates was calculated. Cultural characteristics of fungal isolates on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were observed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphology, cultural characteristics and 18S rRNA sequencing. Citric acid production ability of fungal isolates was screened. Among the isolates Aspergillus niger found to produce the highest quantity of citric acid (2.5 ± 0.01 g/L) and it is selected for further work.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Detection of Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & N. Shishkoff) Resistance Gene in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Cultivar Tacapa Green Black]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  4  

Annis Fatmawati   and Budi Setiadi Daryono   

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of excellent horticultural commodities in Indonesia. The seed's demand rises in every year due to the increase of people's avocation. However, in the production, melon faces many problems. One of them is Powdery Mildew attack. Consequently, it is needed to create a new cultivar that has gene against the attack. Tacapa Green Black (GB) was one of cultivars developed by Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Tacapa GB was derived between PI 371795 and Act3 434 with a test cross Act3 434. The goal of this research was detection of a powdery mildew resistance gene. It was conducted using Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) analysis. The comparator cultivars used in this research were Tacapa Silver, Action 434, and Aramis. The result showed that Tacapa GB had a resistance gene of powdery mildew. It was proven with DNA band at 1058 base pair (bp). Based on this result, it could be concluded that Tacapa GB was excellent melon because of an ability in facing Powdery Mildew problems naturally. Furthermore, because of the presence of that gene, it could reduce the using of pesticide which was commonly used by Farmers to handle fungi attack.

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Sep 2016
<![CDATA[Co-digestion of Livestock Wastes for Biogas Production]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  3  

Onuorah Samuel   Orji Michael   Okigbo Raphael   and Okeke Joseph   

Co-digestion of cow dung, poultry dropping and pig manure was carried out in batch digesters at mesophilic temperature for twenty-eight days to determine the biogas generating potentials. The wastes were also digested individually for the same period and under the same conditions. The physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics were determined using standard techniques. The range of PH, temperature, percentage moisture content, percentage chemical oxygen demand, percentage carbon content, and the bacterial loads of the wastes slurries before digestion were 6.4- 6.8, 28.0℃ - 29.0℃, 80.0 - 80.2, 9.2 - 11.0, 32.0-46.0 and 3.7 x 106cfu/ml -6.2 x 106 cfu/ml respectively and 6.6-7.5, 27.6℃ -28.5℃, 80.2-91.6, 7.0-9.4, 35.0-58.0 and 1.6 x 106 cfu/ml-5.2 x 106 cfu/ml respectively at the end of digestion. The biogas yield from the digestion of the cow dung, poultry dropping and pig manure individually were 185ml, 220ml and 170ml respectively while the co-digestion of the substrates yielded more biogas. The cumulative biogas yield from the digestion was 2780ml. The slurry containing 48g: 144g: 48g of cow dung, poultry dropping and pig manure gave the highest biogas yield. This study showed that though the digestion of a single livestock waste can yield some biogas, co-digestion of such wastes has the potential to generate more biogas.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[The Genetic Potential of Wheat Resistance to Heavy Metals]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  3  

R. Alybayeva   V. Kruzhaeva   A. Alenova   I. Salmenova   A. Asylbekova   and A. Sadyrbaeva   

The aim of this study was to identify wheat germplasm resistant to heavy metals (zinc and cadmium) that are priority pollutants in eastern Kazakhstan region and identification of donors for breeding and promising forms destined for agricultural production. The objects of research are different genotypes of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the collection of the East Kazakhstan Research Institute of Agriculture. Model experiments were performed on 10-days-old sprouts of wheat genotypes, which were grown on nutrient mixtures containing Cd or Zn ions. In field experiment plants were grown on scientific test site, under natural environmental pollution in East Kazakhstan region. Heavy metals in soil and in plant samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Experiments and determination of physiological parameters were conducted by the method of field experiment. Research in model experiment has revealed tolerant and sensitive genotypes. The membranes permeability for the electrolyte in a resistant variety changed in a less degree than the more sensitive in both cases is due to effect of cadmium as well as zinc. This fact testifies that stability of plants in general can be caused by resistance of their cellular membranes to the action of stressor. Field experiment showed genotypic differences in the accumulation of cadmium and zinc in the seeds. Identified genotypes that accumulate a minimum amount of cadmium in the seeds can be recommended for further study in breeding process. Also identified genotypes accumulate a minimum amount of zinc in seeds, they can be recommended for further use in breeding for resistance to zinc accumulation in the grain. Research has revealed the most productive varieties of spring wheat. Two varieties of wheat can be recommended for cultivation on soils contaminated with cadmium, as these varieties of spring wheat accumulate least of cadmium in the seeds and at the same time are characterized by high yields and good survival during the spring-summer growing season in a polymetallic contamination of soil.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[Screening and Identification of Cellulase Producing Yeast from Rongkho Forest, Ubon Ratchathani University]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  3  

Jantaporn Thongekkaew   and Jarupan Kongsanthia   

In this present study, a total of 82 yeast strains were obtained from 111 samples collected from various sources such as soil, tree barks and insect frass from RongKho forest, Ubon Ratchathani University. They were screened and identified for cellulase production. Based on their capabilities of degrading carboxymethyl cellulose as a sole carbon source in solid medium, 45 strains performed cellulose hydrolysis which was verified by the colorless halo in the solid medium. Among them, 3 strains namely UBU-SK6, UBU-JK8 and UBU-JK9/1 showed higher levels of enzyme activity. After the step of solid medium selection, yeast cells were grown in liquid medium containing 1% yeast extract and different concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5-1.5%) under shaking with 150 rpm at 30℃ and for 168 h. The enzyme activity of these 3 strains exhibited 0.224, 0.238 and 0.26 UmL-1, respectively. Afterwards, these wild yeast strains were molecularly identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and D1/D2 domains of the subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. The identification of UBU-SK6, UBU-JK8 and UBU-JK9/1 showed 98-100% similarity as Candida sp. 05-7-186T, Candida easanensis and Candida sp. ST-390 respectively.

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Jul 2016
<![CDATA[Microbial Contamination of Electrical Power Transformer Oil Obtained from Onitsha, Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  2  

Onuorah Samuel   Orji Michael   and Obika Ifeanyi   

Microbial contamination of in-use and unused electrical power transformer oils obtained from Onitsha, Nigeria was studied using cultural techniques. The average bacterial and fungal counts of the in-use oil were 1.2 x 102 cfu/ml and 0.7 x 102 cfu/ml respectively while the mean bacterial and fungal counts of the unused oil were 0.5 x 102 cfu/ml and 0.3 x 102 cfu/ml respectively. The microorganisms from the in-use oil were Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella aerogenes, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor pusillus while those from the unused oil were Micrococcus luteus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella aerogenes and Aspergillus fumigatus. Bacillus subtilis occurred most frequently in both oils. The PH of the medium decreased to the acidic level while there was an increase in the viable counts, indicating the utilization of the transformer oils by the isolates. These isolates may cause the deterioration in the oils quality leading to the failure of the transformer with its attendant economic losses. Regular inspection and maintenance of the transformer as well as periodic changing of its oil is recommended to curb the economic losses.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Estimation of Sulphur Containing Amino Acids in Soybean Products in Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  2  

David Ebuka Elijah   Nwobodo Amarachukwu Grace   and Okafor Chinedu Arthur   

Five different samples of soybean products (Raw Soybeans Seed (RSS), Local Soybean Powdered Milk (LSPM), Local Soybean Liquid Milk (LSLM), Vita-milk and Chi-soymilk) were used for the analysis of sulphur containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) contents. Qualitative analysis using thin layer chromatography technique was carried out on the soybean products to detect the presence of sulphur containing amino acids while spectrophotometric method involving methionine and cysteine standards were used to quantitatively estimate the two amino acids in the soybean products. The RF values (Retardation Factor) of 0.70 and 0.90 for methionine and cysteine standards respectively were used as control values. The presence of methionine in these five soybean products was detected with RF values of 0.69, 0.70, 0.70, 0.70 and 0.71 for RSS, LSPM, LSLM, Vita-milk and Chi-soymilk, respectively. The presence of cysteine in these five samples of soybean products was detected with RF values 0.91, 0.92, 0.90, 0.90 and 0.92 for the five samples. The result of qualitative analysis confirms the presence of methionine and cysteine in all the samples. From the result of the spectrophometric analysis of the products, methionine concentration in (g/100ml) present in Vita-milk (0.90±0.70) and Chi-soymilk (0.64±0.02) is significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control RSS (0.47±0.02). Methionine concentration (g/100ml) present in Local Soybean Powdered Milk (LSPM), (0.22±0.02) is significantly lower than RSS (0.47±0.02) but not for Local Soybean Liquid Milk (LSLM) (0.50±0.02). Cysteine concentration (g/100ml) present in Vita-milk (1.130±0.27), Chi-soymilk (0.590±0.06) and Local Soybean Liquid Milk (0.610±0.03) is significantly higher (p<0.05) than the RSS control (0.130±0.03). Also cysteine concentration (g/100ml) present in Local Soybean Powdered Milk (0.126±0.02) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than the RSS control (0.130±0.03). An increase in both methionine and cysteine concentrations for Chi-soymilk and Vita-milk suggests that these soybean products were enriched with these amino acids during processing, hence can effectively replenish the lost sulphur amino acids in the body due to the action of trypsin inhibitor present in soybeans.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[Redirecting the Wheels of Natural Progression: Review of Synthetic Biology and the African Biotechnology Revolution]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  2  

Garang B. N.   and Onkware A. O.   

Synthetic biology is broadly understood as the deliberate design of novel biological systems and organisms that draws on principles elucidated by biologists, chemists, physicists and engineers, in essence it is about redesigning life'. The main aim of this work was to review the state of synthetic biology in Africa in contrast with the trends of both conventional and modern biotechnologies and to give highlights on the future novelty of synthetic biology. The study showed that synthetic biology in Africa has not yet fully come of age, and that plant biotechnology has been extensively adopted in the continent. The potentials which can be achieved with this technology are unimaginable and can bring about great progress in developing nations. However greater political initiatives and government policies needs to be instigated if the advantages of this technology are to be fully felt in Africa, this thus calls for further research and investments into the technology.

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May 2016
<![CDATA[A Bioinformatic Approach to MSI Cancer Research]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  1  

Nick Napier   and Nico Limogiannis   

Recent advances in genome sequencing, mRNA expression, and other genomic technologies have resulted in several databases containing a wealth of genomic information—so much information that much of it remains unexamined. By using the R programming language, databases can be mined to research cancer without the need for experimentation. Using this approach, the mRNA expression of 9,768 known genes was compared between microsatellite stable (MSS) and microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers. This computational analysis revealed 5,435 genes with a significant difference (p < 0.05) in expression between MSS and MSI forms; many genes showed strongly significant differences (p < 2×10-15). In addition, a gene expression signature constructed from these differentially-expressed genes predicted MSI-H (but not MSI-L) status in cancer cell lines with 97% accuracy. Finally, our results potentially associate several pathways with MSI cancers. While much future study will be needed to more closely examine these results, the current study demonstrates the use of bioinformatics in making discoveries based upon existing data and in directing the focus of future experiments.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[Alcohol Dehydrogenase Diversified Pattern of Indian Major and Exotic Carps]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  4  Number  1  

Amita Saxena   and Ningthoukhongjam Soranganba   

Isozyme pattern were studied in six teleost species of Catla (Catla catla), Rohu (Labeo rohita), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthyes molitrix) from gill, muscle, heart and kidney tissues. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were separated in native-PAGE of 7.5% gradient. ADH-1 and ADH-2 loci were observed and comparison of Rm value of the polypeptide show different diversified enzyme activities which were sync with their feeding metabolic, habitat and environmental factors. The overall observation was found to be tissue specific.

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Jan 2016
<![CDATA[A Comparison of Stress Susceptibility of Sea Urchins and Sea Cucumbers in Aquaculture Conditions]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  6  

Regina Shannon   and Ahmed Mustafa   

Purple sea urchins and giant California sea cucumbers are becoming increasingly important sources of food and marine pharmaceuticals. Because there have been many fisheries established to harvest these species, many of them have been greatly depleted. In order to alleviate this problem intensive aquaculture is generating interest as a solution. However, when an animal is placed into an artificial system, there are a variety of stresses that it can encounter, such as salinity changes or handling. In order to determine which species is more susceptible to stress, various physiological and immunological assays were done on the coelomic fluid of purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and giant California sea cucumbers, Parastichopus californicus. Assays included total and phagocytic cell counts, phagocytic capacity, and lytic activity. Our results indicated that low salinity and handling both cause significant stress responses in sea urchins. For sea cucumbers, there were few significant differences from the control, and no differences in immune function. These results indicate that in an aquaculture environment the purple sea urchin is more likely to be stressed compared to the giant California sea cucumber, and that facilities interested in raising sea urchins should be particularly careful to avoid any condition that is potentially stressful.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[HIV and Tuberculosis: Overview]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  6  

Amit Gupta   and Sushama R Chaphalkar   

Tuberculosis (air borne disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or tubercle bacilli) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), enduring human burden, are growing manifold or multiple health problems in the developing world triggering millions of deaths world-over each year. It is crucial to recognize the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis involved in transmission and disease progression to comprehend or understand the synergy between the two epidemics.

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Dec 2015
<![CDATA[Fungi Associated with the Deterioration of Post-harvest Onion Bulbs Sold in Some Markets in Awka, Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  5  

Onuorah Samuel   and Obika Ifeanyi   

Onion bulbs rots are caused by microorganisms especially fungi leading to economic loss. These fungi have been known to produce toxins which are injurious to human and animal health, therefore in this study, the fungi associated with the spoilage of onions bulbs purchased from Umuike, Amaikwo, Amaudo, Okpuno and Permanent site markets were isolated, characterized and identified. The average fungal counts ranged between 1.2 x 103 CfU/ml and 2.0 x 103 CfU/ml. The fungi isolated from the spoilt onion bulbs were Penicillum digitatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The samples from Amaudo market had the highest percentage distribution of fungi of 34.2% while those from permanent site had the least percentage distribution of 8.6%. Aspergillus niger had the highest percentage distribution of 34.29% in the spoilt onion bulbs while Saccharomyces cerevisiae had the least percentage distribution of 5.71%. Aspergillus niger also had the highest rot diameter of 40mm while Saccharomyces cerevisiae had the least rot diameter of 16mm. Adequate mycological knowledge, storage facilities and handling practices would therefore minimize the deterioration of onion bulbs thereby ensuring its availability to the society all year round.

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Oct 2015
<![CDATA[Effects of Omega -3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Aquaponic System-raised Tilapia]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  5  

Tiffany Hough   Mohammad Qasim   Christina Glaze   Elliott Blumenthal   and Ahmed Mustafa   

Tilapia does not naturally contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids which can be altered through feed supplementation. This study evaluates the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on tilapia growth and muscle tissue composition, especially the ability of tilapia to retain omega-3 fatty acids, raised in aquaponics system. Tilapia were fed linseed oil (LO) and sunflower oil (SO) supplemented feeds for 12 weeks and growth was measured at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Omega-3 muscle tissue retention was measured at 12 weeks. The condition factor significantly increased between 6 and 12 weeks for both LO and SO. At week 12 the condition factor of the negative control (NC) was significantly lower than both LO and SO. LO retained more of some omega-3 fatty acids than SO, however they were not significantly different using either method. NC had higher total omega-3 values than LO and SO according to both methods; however NC also had the highest saturated and total fat. This study determined that increasing fatty acids in the diet resulted in increased growth and a healthier body composition overall for tilapia; however it did not conclusively determine the effect of supplementation on omega-3 retention.

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Oct 2015
<![CDATA[Preparation of Cicer Artienium Amylase Loaded BSA Nanoparticles and Their Bioproteolysis to be Used as Detergent Additive]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  5  

Kirti Rani   and Chanchal Chauhan   

Cicer aritenium is rich source of amylase and used for extraction of amylase. Amylases are known for their industrial application in food, pharmaceutical, detergent, textile and leather industries. The extracted amylase was encapsulated into biochemically engineered BSA nanoparticles with butanol through glutaraldehyde by desolavtion method. BSA was chosen as a biocompatible matrix used for the binding of amylase where 77.6% of enzyme encapsulation was achieved. This binding was lead to enhancing the thermal stability at 72℃ for 6 hours and storage stability at 4℃ of bound enzyme for 16 months as compared to free enzyme whose thermal stability at 72℃ only for 15 minutes and storage stability only for 24 hours day were found. However, studied thermal stability, storage stability and % of encapsulation for maximal activity for encapsulated enzyme was found to be at remarkably higher as compared to free enzyme which increased the industrial viability of amylase after immobilization. Characterization of prepared nanoparticles was done by Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) and Scattering Light Microscopy (SEM). Observed size of enzyme loaded nanoparticles was observed in the range of 56 nm to 107.4 nm. Bioproteolysis of enzyme loaded BSA nanoparticles was performed by alkaline protease (10 U, 15 U, 20 U, 25 U, 30 U, 35 U, 40 U, 45 U) for sustained and controlled release of encapsulated amylase from prepared nanoparticles. And, further, their application was studied with detergents powder (Aerial, Surf Excel, Wheel and Tide) for washing of tough stained cloths pieces having chosen stains of coffee, tea, pomegranate and turmeric. These strains are found to be difficult to vanish in one simple wash. But, this cost effective bio-active enzyme loaded BSA nanopreaparation were found to be effective in washing with chosen detergents for quick and efficient washing with absolute clear visible results as compared to the results when washing of stained cloths pieces was done with detergents only.

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Oct 2015
<![CDATA[Determination of Effective Dosage of Phyllanthus niruri to Modulate Stress in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  4  

Md Ibrahim   Mursalin Khan   Jesse Rinard   and Ahmed Mustafa   

A study was performed to determine the effects of supplementing Phyllanthus niruri, an herbal medicinal plant found worldwide and its optimal dosage to modulate stress in tilapia. Phyllanthus niruri-extract from three different sources (suppliers) was given to study fish through supplementation to commercial fish feed at the rate of 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentration. Administration of 5% Phyllanthus niruri from Source B significantly reduced blood glucose in fish.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Physiological and Immunological Responses in Giant California Sea Cucumbers (Parastichopus californicus) Exposed to Aquaculture-related Stress]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  4  

Regina Shannon   Elliott Blumenthal   and Ahmed Mustafa   

Sea cucumbers are a valuable resource both for food and the production of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, and as a result, the market for the giant California sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, has greatly increased, resulting in the establishment of fisheries along the west coast of North America. The sea cucumber industry is poorly regulated, and the fisheries are not believed to be sustainable, so there is interest in promoting the intensive aquaculture of this species. Since aquaculture conditions can cause stress to animals, which makes them more susceptible to disease, it is important to determine the stress susceptibility of sea cucumbers to two potential stresses, handling and low salinity. In order to study the impact of these stressors, a variety of physiological and immunological assays were done on the coelomic fluid of giant California sea cucumbers. Assays included total and differential cell counts, coelomic fluid protein, phagocytic capacity, lytic activity, and respiratory burst activity. Our results indicated that there were few significant differences from the control, and no differences in parameters analyzing immune function. These results indicate that the giant California sea cucumber is likely to be productive in an aquaculture environment, and the culture of this species should be encouraged.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Structural Prediction, Glucose-1-Phosphate Interaction and Influence of Broad Leaves Herbicides on Spinach Leaves α-glucan Phosphorylase: An in Silico Study]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  4  

Ritu Jain   Neha Jain   and Anil Kumar   

Starch phosphorylase is a α-glucan-phosphorylase that plays various important roles in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. It is mainly involved in the degradation of starch, however, it has also been reported to be involved in the synthesis of starch especially during abiotic stress conditions. Mutant studies revealed that disruption of this enzyme adversely affects the survival of plants. In the present study, we have established that starch phosphorylase is highly conserved among plant species in terms of protein sequence and 3-dimensional structure. Besides, we theorized degradation by starch phosphorylase as a common plausible mechanism through which herbicides may exert adverse effects on general plant population. Using in silico biology, we provided a clue that some of the commercially available herbicides have potential to bind with the active site of starch phosphorylase and these can competitively inhibit the activity of this vital enzyme.

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Aug 2015
<![CDATA[Filamentous Fungi Associated with the Spoilage of Post-Harvest Sweet Orange Fruits (Citrus Sinensis) Sold in Awka Major Markets, Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  3  

Onuorah Samuel   Obika Ifeanyi   and Okafor Ugochukwu   

Sweet oranges are prone to spoilage by filamentous fungi as a result of their high levels of sugars and low PH values. These fungi are known to produce toxins which are deleterious to human health. This study was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and identify the filamentous fungi associated with the spoilage of sweet oranges sold in major Awka Markets, Nigeria. Thirty sweet orange fruits purchased from Eke-Awka, Temporary Site, Nodu, Ifite and Amaenyi Markets were used for the study. The average filamentous fungal count of the spoilt sweet orange fruits was 2.0 x103 cfu/ml, 1.3 x 103 cfu/ml, 2.1 x 103 cfu/ml, 1.6x 103 cfu/ml and 1.8 x 103 cfu/ml for the samples from Eke-Awka, Temporary Site, Nodu, Ifite and Amaenyi Markets respectively. The fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium digitatum, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The percentage distribution of the fungi was 27.5%, 22.5%, 15.0%, 10.0%, 7.5 and 17.5% for Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium digitatum, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Aspergillus niger caused the highest degree of spoilage. Good agricultural practices, adequate storage facilities and good handling practices must be put in place to reduce the incidence of these fungi in sweet oranges thereby minimizing their spoilage.

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Jun 2015
<![CDATA[Model-guided in silico Overexpression of adhE Gene Predicts Increased Ethanol Production in Escherichia coli from Xylose]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  3  

Bashir Sajo Mienda   and Mohd Shahir Shamsir   

Escherichia coli systems metabolic engineering has progressed significantly in guiding future metabolic engineering targets for the production of bioethanol using different carbon sources. However, the use of xylose as substrate coupled with overexpression of E. coli native adhE using parsimonious enzyme usage (pFBA) algorithm with the OptFlux interface remained largely underexplored. Here, we show for the first time that in silico overexpression of the adhE and under expression of pflA lead to 2 fold increase in ethanol production from xylose using the E. coli GEM. The results indicate that 2 NADH molecules have been generated by under expression of pflA and ldhA. Furthermore, the triple overexpression of the native adhE/ b1241 using xylose as the substrate might have increased the consumption of NADH generated in the cell that lead to 2 fold increase in ethanol production with a growth rate that was 90.8% of the wild-type model. On the bases of these findings, we hypothesize that E. coli native adhE preferred xylose as substrate when overexpressed to achieve cellular redox balance by oxidizing NADH generated in increasing ethanol production. This study informs other studies that model-guided biological insight could be applied in identifying metabolic engineering targets, paving way for a comprehensive biological inquiry on the role of the E. coli native adhE overexpression in enhancing ethanol production using xylose as a solitary carbon source.

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Jun 2015
<![CDATA[Cross-species Comparison of CpG Density in the Promoter Regions of Protein Kinase Oncogenes]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  3  

Gabriel G. Pioth   Kong-Nan Zhao   and Guang B. Liu   

In this report, we investigated CpG density occurred in promoter regions (PRs) and downstream flanking regions (DFR) of 61 human protein kinase oncogenes (PKOs), together with other three species: chimpanzee, mouse and horse. The quantified numbers of CpGs in the PRs of human PKOs were much higher than those of chimpanzee, mouse and horse, suggesting that the CpG density changes among the four species are associated with species evolution. Human PKOs with relatively high number of CpGs in the PRs showed stronger gene expression than the mouse PKOs in tumour tissues, but not in normal tissues. Furthermore, human PKOs with extremely high density of CpGs in the PRs exhibited much lower expression in tumour tissues than in normal tissues. Our data initially suggest that the occurrence and density of CpGs in the PRs of PKOs play an important role in regulating gene expression associated with the tumorigenesis. Thus, further improvement of our understanding of the density and spatial arrangement of CpGs in the PRs of PKOs and other oncogenes involved in tumorigenesis is very important for providing preventive and therapeutic strategies for human cancer.

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Jun 2015
<![CDATA[Prevalence of Candida Species among Vaginitis Symptomatic Pregnant Women Attending Ante-natal Clinic of Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Nigeria]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  2  

Onuorah Samuel   Obika Ifeanyi   and Okafor Ugochukwu   

Vaginitis is the fungal infection of the vulva and or vagina caused mostly by Candida albicans. Itching, abortion, irritation of the vulva and vagina and white discharges from the vagina are the common symptoms. Thirty vaginitis symptomatic pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic of Anambra State University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria were sampled. They were aged between twenty and forty-five years. The Candida species were isolated, characterized and identified by standard biochemical and microbiological methods. The women aged 26-30 years had the highest percentage distribution of Candida species (63.3%) while those in their third trimester of pregnancy were mostly infected, with a percentage distribution of 63.3%. The vaginal candida species isolated from the women were Candida albicans (66.7%), Candida grabrata (23.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.7%) and Candida krusei (3.3%). Candida albicans occurred in all the age groups and trimesters of pregnancy. The pregnant women at great risk of vaginitis are those aged between 26 and 30 years as well as those in their third trimester of pregnancy. This calls for commitment to routine medical examination and appropriate treatment of the infected pregnant women.

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Apr 2015
<![CDATA[Technological Features of Selected Kivuguto Strains during Milk Fermentation]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  2  

Eugene Karenzi   Marie-Laure Fauconnier   Jacqueline Destain   Pascal Laurent   and Philippe Thonart   

Kivuguto milk is a traditional fermented milk of Rwanda. A previous study allowed for the selection of three bacteria involved in the fermentation process. The aim of the present work is the technological characterization of kivuguto strains for its production in the dairy industry. Acidification, proteolysis, the flavor compound profile, rheology and sensory analyses of fermented milks were assessed as important indicators of the starter culture formulation. Acidification showed that kivuguto milk ferments in 14 hours at 19℃ with a titratable acidity of 73oD. The samples of CWBI-B1466 Lactococcus lactis and CWBI-B1470 Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides had fermentation times of 14 h and 20 h, respectively. All samples were viscoelastic fluids, and the most important flavor compounds found were two alcohols, one ester and two furan derivative compounds. Proteolysis revealed low values ranging to 3.04-5.45 mg.L-1, which is very interesting in terms of taste acceptability. The three strains showed positive technological properties for kivuguto starter culture development and the data are fully in agreement with the preliminary results of the technological analyses. The findings revealed similarities between the formulated kivuguto and the traditional kivuguto as recognized by a tasting panel in a discrimination test. Ultimately, this study allowed for the formulation of kivuguto milk using three bacteria, prior to studying the stability of these properties during storage under refrigeration, which is the last stage before industrial production of kivuguto milk can begin.

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Apr 2015
<![CDATA[State of the Development and Viability of Gene Therapy Ventures]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  1  

Evan Gary   Syed Adeel Ahmed   and Shafin Khan, J. D.    

After years of being ignored due to flaws in the delivery methods, technology has advanced enough to make gene therapy an emerging biotechnology. Gene therapy is significant in that it enables treatment of many conditions for which treating the underlying cause was previously not possible. Glybera, made by Dutch company UniQure, is the only approved gene therapy treatment in the United States and Europe. UniQure and many other companies are now doing research into gene therapy with intent to commercialize the technology. This paper examines companies such as UniQure in the early stages of development (pre-IPO or recent IPO). Venture capital funding as well as clinical trial status are also studied. In addition, both the context of gene therapy in biotech and the potential pricing of treatments are examined with the ultimate goal of assessing the state of gene therapy as a new business and assessing the viability of these ventures. This report is focused on the business of gene therapy and is not intended as a detailed technical examination of the available technologies.

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Feb 2015
<![CDATA[Adenoviruses in Gene Therapy- A Review]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  3  Number  1  

Viswanathan. S   Prathiba Srinivasan   and Prabhu. S   

Viruses have become extensively studied over the decade not just for decoding their complex structures but also to understand disease pathways and for the treatment of various diseases as well. The advent of recombinant technology has allowed viruses to be used as vectors in gene therapy, which is the treating of diseases by inserting/deleting genes. One such virus which has risen to prominence because of its flexibility in terms of usage and its versatility in regard to organisms is the adenovirus. This review will elaborate the remarkable progress that has been made with these vectors in the past decade, shortcomings involved in the entire process as well as current biological strategies employed in utilizing adenovirus mediated gene therapy.

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Feb 2015
<![CDATA[Lycopene Prolongs the Lifespan and Enhances the Cytotoxicity of NK Cells after Ex Vivo Expansion]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  2  Number  3  

Qi Li   Ting Huyan   Lin-Jie Ye   Hai-Long Ren   Jun-Ling Shi   and Qing-Sheng Huang   

Lycopene is a nonprovitamin a carotenoid mainly found in fruits and vegetables, which has been reported to possess a variety of biological effects. The properties of lycopene on human natural killer (NK) cells after ex vivo expansion were assessed in the present study. Results showed that lycopene has a positive effect on NK cells viability and cytotoxicity. Aging and apoptosis started from the fourth week onwards in the cultured NK cells which were obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Supplemented with lycopene (5μM) can restore the decreased viability and cytotoxicity of NK cells and reduce NK cells apoptosis caused by aging during fourth-sixth week culture. Its anti-apoptosis effect on NK cells may be related to lycopene can down regulated the expression of caspase 3 and 9 genes. Furthermore, lycopene can enhance the IFN-γ expression in gene and protein level after 7d treatment. However, lycopene did not affect the functional receptor's (NKG2A, NKG2D, NKp30 and NKp44) expression on NK cells. These results indicated that lycopene has a positive effect on NK cells. As a health product, it may help to prolong the lifespan and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells after ex vivo expansion.

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Dec 2014
<![CDATA[Study on Bio Efficacy of Insecticides in the Predator Management of Katki Lac Crop]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  2  Number  2  

Sandeep Janghel   Moni Thomas   A S Thakur   Sushma Nema   and H L Sharma   

The Bio efficacy of insecticides for predator management of Kerria lacca was studied on the natural stand of Butea monosperma trees of 10 women lac growers of village Malhara Seoni district Madhya Pradesh during the July- October 2012. A combination of Cartap hydrochloride + Mancozeb(T1),Emamectin benzoate + Dithane M-45(T2) and Control(T3) was evaluated against the predators of the Lac insect. Pesticides application significantly reduced the incidence of major predators- E amabilis and P pulverea. In comparison to T3 there was a reduction in the population of E amabilis by 90 and 87 per cent respectively with (T2) and (T1). In case of P pulvera reduction in the population was 90 and 86.18 percent with T1 and T2 respectively over the control (T3).

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Sep 2014
<![CDATA[Facts about Radiation Risk Related to Bioengineering: Awareness of the Public by Passing on Relevant Information]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  2  Number  1  

Jozef Sabol   Bed?ich ?esták   Jana Hudzietzová   and Rebeka Ralbovská   

The paper deals with the radiation risk in perspective with the other risks we encounter in our everyday lives. It emphasizes the health impact associated with bioengineering imaging techniques based on the use radiation generators or radiopharmaceuticals. Some aspects, important for the realistic perception of the actual and realistic magnitude of radiation hazards, which are usually largely exaggerated by the public, are discussed. In addition, some facts based on a comparison of different risks in order to neutralize possible psychological impact caused by radiophobia are also outlined.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Structual Peculiarities of Exopolysaccharides of Phototrophic Bacteria Rhodobacter Sphaeroides]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  2  Number  1  

L. S. Markosyan   R. S. Oganesyan   I. E. Melkumyan   and S. S. Mamyan   

For the first time, properties and structural peculiarities of exopolysaccharides produced by phototrophic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides isolated from hydrocarbonate mineral waters in Armenia with a degree of mineralization in limits of 3.5-5.0g/l, pH 7.2 have been studied. It is noteworthy that despite membership of the isolated strains in one and the same genus, these strains are significantly different by the nature of the produced exooligosaccharide. The studies implemented show that phototrophic bacteria are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides with different compositions and structures: cyclic and linear, depending on the cultivation conditions.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Isolation of Cellulose-Degrading Actinomycetes and Evaluation of their Cellulolytic Potential]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  2  Number  1  

Yugal Kishore Mohanta   

Nine isolates of cellulose-degrading Actinomycetes were isolated from different sediment samples from the Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest. Cellulase and hydrolytic activity was confirmed with clear zone around the colony on basal salt agar medium using Congo Red. The enzyme assays for two enzymes, filter paper cellulase (FPCase), and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), were examined by methods recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The extracellular cellulase activities ranged from 0.266±0.001 to 0.734±0.001 IU/mL for FPC and 0.501±0.014 to 1.381±0.024 IU/mL for CMCase or endoglucanase assay.

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Feb 2014
<![CDATA[Agronomic Performance of Transgenic and Non Trangenic Cotton against Cotton Leaf Curl Virus]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  3  

Rana Faisal Iqbal   Mubasher Ali   Jamil Shafi   Waqas Ahmad   Muhammad Atiq   Muhammad Mohsin   and Muhammad Shahid   

The present study was carried out to increase the level of tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum L. against cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). Hybridization of a transgenic line (anti-sense tRep gene) with three naturally resistant (non-transgenic) varieties namely FH-1000, MNH-786 and NIBGE-115 was performed. The parents and their F1 Hybrids were evaluated for disease infectivity. Data of some morphological traits (Plant Height, Monopodial Branches per Plant, Sympodial Branches per Plant, Number of Boll per Plant, Lint Percentage, Boll Weight, Staple Length, Staple Strength, Fiber Fineness, Yield of Seed Cotton ) was evaluated satanically to check the influence of disease on morphology of plant. The results showed that hybridization increased the tolerance level against cotton leaf curl virus.

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[Bioleaching as Possible Method of Sorbent Regeneration]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  3  

Zuzana Danková   Iveta ?tyriaková   Annamária Mockov?iaková   Igor ?tyriak   and Mária Orolínová   

The possibility to use the heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus sp. for regeneration of natural montmorillonite and montmorillonite/iron oxide composite after the Cu(II) adsorption was studied and compared with the classical methods of chemical regeneration. After 10 days of bioleaching the bacteria released approximately 80 % of loaded Cu(II), leaving the sorbents stable. Longer treatment and higher concentration of dissolved metal cations in the solution caused the reverse sorption of Cu(II) by bacteria. The treating of composite with adsorbed Cu(II) with organic acids (oxalic, citric) led to partial Cu(II) dissolution. The hydrochloric acid caused its structural destruction, liberated the Fe ions from the oxides precipitated on the bentonite surface. The bioregenerated sorbent was successfully repeatedly used for the Cu(II) adsorption.

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[Molecular Analysis, Based on 28s rDNA Dctylogyroides Species, Parasitizing Puntius Species]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  3  

Ritika Raj Shrivastava   Nirupama Agrawal   and M.K.Upadhyay   

The interrelationships of the helminthes have attracted attention from both phylogeneticists restricting their attention to morphological characters and those relying solely on molecular data. The phylogenic relationships exsisting among four monogenoidean belonging to genus Dactylogyroides which was found on two species of freshwater cypriniformes fish Puntius as P.sophore and P.chola in the River Gomti, India. These relationships were investigated via the use of the partial 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA).

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Dec 2013
<![CDATA[Comparative Genetic Variability and Heritability in Some Tomato Varieties against Fruit Borer, Shape Disorders and Their Correlation]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  2  

Muhammad Iqbal Waqas Ahmad Jamil Shafi C. M.Ayub Muhammad Atiq Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Saleem 

Present study was carried out to determine the breeding potential ten tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) varieties to develop resistant varieties for fruit borer, fruit cracking, blossom end rot, cat face, sunscald and blotchy ripening. Coefficients of variation, heritability and correlation coefficients were determined for this purpose. Significant varietal difference for all the resistant measured was observed. The coefficients of variability for phenotype were always greater then genotypic and environmental coefficients of variation for under study characters. High heritability for fruit borer resistant, cracked resist fruit, blossom end rot resist fruit, cat face resist fruit was observed. The positive significant relationships were obtain for Cracked resist fruit-Cat face resist fruit, Blossom end rot resist fruit-Sunscald resist fruit and Cracked resist fruit-Blotchy ripened resist fruit pairs.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Comparative Expression Pattern of Two Vestigial-Like 2 Genes in Zebrafish]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  2  

Aline Hamade Francine Rizk Carine Genet and Xavier Cousin 

The vestigial Vg gene, initially characterized in Drosophila, encodes a transcription co-factor which is crucial for wings development. Vg binds via its Sd interaction domain (SID) to the Scalloped (Sd) transcription factor and its vertebrate homolog Tef1. Previous studies identified several vertebrate genes sharing high homology with Drosophila Vg SID such as Vgl (for Vg-like), TONDU (also known as Vgl1) or Vito-1 (also known as Vgl2). In order to investigate the role of vestigial-like 2 (vgll2) in zebrafish muscle development, we managed to clone and characterize two zebrafishVgll2 homolog genes, Vgll2a and Vgll2b. Alignment data showed high sequence homology of Vgll2a to vertebrates Vgll2 sequences. In situ hybridization showed that the two investigated Vgll2 genes had a similar expression pattern: they were first detected in adaxial cells (11 hpf), than expanded laterally in somites and at the end of segmentation, both genes were expressed in additional structures including head muscles and fin buds. In addition, different expression patterns of the two genes were observed. Vgll2a was expressed in bronchial arches precursor streams, derived gill muscles and hypothalamic precursors. Vgll2b was expressed in notochord at 14 hpf and regressed following notochord maturation at 18hpf. Furthermore, the genetic regulation of vgll2 genes was analysed using smu mutants and data revealed that both genes are regulated via the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

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Oct 2013
<![CDATA[Growth Energy of Bacteria and the Associated Electricity Generation in Fuel Cells]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  1  

Emad Y. Moawad 

This paper aims to determine the mechanism by which microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert the chemical energy into electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms in waste water/sewage treatment plants, to be predictable and controllable so as to economize the project. The wide range of soluble activated sludge in waste streams as a source of bacteria - from low to very high- estimated statistically is responsible for risks of electric current inhibition. For optimizing electricity generation in a continuous process and a large-scale production; a mathematical model is presented to describe the bacteria growth energy (BGE) consumed from the amounts of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) contained in fed wastewater along with predicting the amounts of electricity generated by the MFCs. Simulations of the presented model showed that the Input Energy (IE) of the BOD is always balanced with its subsequent from the BGE and the concomitant generated electrical energy according to law of conservation of energy.

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Aug 2013
<![CDATA[Induction of Andrographolide, A Biologically Active Ingredient in Callus of Andrographis Paniculata (Burm.F) Wallich Ex. Nees]]> Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  1  Number  1  

Alwar Vidyalakshmi and Subramanian Ananthi 

Andrographolide is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata. Callus and suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata are known to produce only paniculides (sesquiterpene lactones) and not andrographolides (diterpene lactone) that are produced by the intact plant. In this study, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA), Napthalene-acetic-acid (NAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) were used at different concentrations such as 25, 50, 75, 100mg/l to find their effect on andrographolide content in leaves of A. paniculata. Treatment of detached leaves with growth regulators showed increase in andrographolide content and maximum enhancement was observed with NAA at 100 mg/l. Spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis proved andrographolide induction in callus by treatment with NAA. Present study thus indicates that andrographolide production can be induced in the callus of A. paniculata by treatment with plant growth hormones.

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Aug 2013
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